Hetmanate


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Hetmanate

 

(Russian, Getmanshchina). (1) Semiofficial term, starting in the second half of the 17th century, for the Left-bank Ukraine. After the Ukraine was united with Russia in 1654, the Hetmanate became, along with Kiev, a constituent part of the Russian state. The Hetmanate was ruled by a hetman elected by the General Host Rada. It enjoyed a certain degree of autonomy, having its own administrative-territorial system, courts, finances, and army. Feudal and serf-owning relations predominated in its sociopolitical structure. In 1722 and 1734 the tsarist government temporarily suspended the rule of the hetmans, and in 1764 the Hetmanate was abolished once and for all.

(2) A counterrevolutionary dictatorship of the pomeshchiks(landlords) and bourgeoisie in the Ukraine in 1918, headed by the henchman of the German occupation forces P. P. Skoropadskii, a former tsarist general and large pomeshchik. The German command issued an order dissolving the Central Rada and staged an election for its Ukrainian hetman on Apr. 29, 1918. Skoropadskii staffed his government with representatives of the large pomeshchiks and capitalists. By a special charter the hetman restored private ownership of plants and factories and introduced a regime of drumhead military courts. The struggle of the Ukrainian people for restoration of Soviet power, led by the Bolsheviks and relying on the support of the Russian people, brought about the defeat of the German occupation and the elimination of the Hetmanate in the middle of December 1918. On December 14, Skoropadskii fled to Germany.

REFERENCES

Lenin, V. I. “Tezisy o sovremennom politicheskom polozhenii.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 36.
Istoriia grazhdanskoi voiny v SSSR 1917-1922, vol. 3. Moscow, 1957.
Istoriia Ukrains’koi RSR, vols. 1-2. Kiev, 1967.

A. V. LIKHOLAT

References in periodicals archive ?
Vyhovsky launched further military efforts against persistent opposition to his Hetmanate.
7) Indeed, in the seventeenth century very few states and dynasties had a formal or codified law of succession, and the newly established Ukrainian Cossack Hetmanate was certainly not one of those states.
He had lived in Volhynia in western Ukraine briefly where he taught at the lyceum in Kremenets, but was less interested in Left Bank Ukraine and its Hetmanate, which had been outside the Polish orbit since 1648.
Kohut, Russian Centralism and Ukrainian Autonomy: Imperial Absorption of the Hetmanate 1760-1830s (Cambridge, 1988), pp.
The 17th century brought more social change: Russian merchant groups; new model troops (most recruited from the peasantry) and the foreign experts to train them; garrison forces on the steppe and Siberia including odnodvortsy, Cossacks, musketeers (many recruited from runaway serfs); Bashkirs; Indian, Armenian, and Greek merchants in Astrakhan and Volga towns; Bukharan merchants in Siberia; a whole "German neighborhood" in Moscow; the entire Hetmanate of Ukrainian Cossacks, Ukrainian nobility, merchants, and state peasants; Old Believers.
Each hetman, with his foreign allies, tried to eliminate his opponent(s) and to establish a united Hetmanate on the both banks of the Dnieper.
To get the icon to speak to us, Plokhy puts the icon into its historical context, which is the Cossack Hetmanate state founded by the Treaty of Pereiaslav in 1654.
The cultural capital of the Hetmanate and the key role that it played in defending the Orthodox Church on its vulnerable western frontier offered its native sons the opportunity to propagate the Cossacks' unique cultural concerns and historical memory across the empire.
The border between the latter states has shifted over time, and some parts of Ukraine have lived much longer under Poland (Galicia: 1386-1772, 1918-39) and others much longer under Russia and its Soviet successor (the Hetmanate and Sloboda Ukraine: since the mid-17th century until independence in 1991, interrupted by the German occupation of 1941-43).
Yushchenko's other efforts in the realm of memory politics--the glorification of the battle of Konotop in 1659 as a great victory of Ukrainians over Russians, the commemoration of the Baturin tragedy of 1708 (the destruction of the Cossack Hetmanate capital, Baturin, and persecution of the civilian population by the troops of Peter the Great), the battle of Poltava in 1709 (the defeat of Charles XII and loss of the autonomy of Ukrainian lands), the Kruty tragedy of 1918 (the heroic sacrifice of Kyivan students in the fight against Bolsheviks from Moscow)--all these efforts were regarded by his opponents as nationalist propaganda (in Ukraine) and as policies aimed at driving a wedge between brotherly peoples (in Russia).
The Hetmanate and its church were in considerable disorder, and leading clergy struggled to find a unique voice with which to have an influence on those lay and religious authorities, some quite far away, who would have the final say.
For the 17th and 18th centuries Kohut defines two competing state-building projects: the Hetmanate and the Russian Empire.