Hetmanate


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Hetmanate

 

(Russian, Getmanshchina). (1) Semiofficial term, starting in the second half of the 17th century, for the Left-bank Ukraine. After the Ukraine was united with Russia in 1654, the Hetmanate became, along with Kiev, a constituent part of the Russian state. The Hetmanate was ruled by a hetman elected by the General Host Rada. It enjoyed a certain degree of autonomy, having its own administrative-territorial system, courts, finances, and army. Feudal and serf-owning relations predominated in its sociopolitical structure. In 1722 and 1734 the tsarist government temporarily suspended the rule of the hetmans, and in 1764 the Hetmanate was abolished once and for all.

(2) A counterrevolutionary dictatorship of the pomeshchiks(landlords) and bourgeoisie in the Ukraine in 1918, headed by the henchman of the German occupation forces P. P. Skoropadskii, a former tsarist general and large pomeshchik. The German command issued an order dissolving the Central Rada and staged an election for its Ukrainian hetman on Apr. 29, 1918. Skoropadskii staffed his government with representatives of the large pomeshchiks and capitalists. By a special charter the hetman restored private ownership of plants and factories and introduced a regime of drumhead military courts. The struggle of the Ukrainian people for restoration of Soviet power, led by the Bolsheviks and relying on the support of the Russian people, brought about the defeat of the German occupation and the elimination of the Hetmanate in the middle of December 1918. On December 14, Skoropadskii fled to Germany.

REFERENCES

Lenin, V. I. “Tezisy o sovremennom politicheskom polozhenii.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 36.
Istoriia grazhdanskoi voiny v SSSR 1917-1922, vol. 3. Moscow, 1957.
Istoriia Ukrains’koi RSR, vols. 1-2. Kiev, 1967.

A. V. LIKHOLAT

References in periodicals archive ?
Vyhovsky launched further military efforts against persistent opposition to his Hetmanate. Breaking with Muscovy, he also attempted to block Romodanovskii's continuing intrusions in Ukraine.
This essay, then, supports the case for considering this transfer of power in the Hetmanate and subsequent disputes as the "opening accord," or "opening salvo," of "The Ruin." (2) But before proceeding with an examination of the political developments in 1657, two issues must be addressed: The impact of a regime's founder's death on government and society; and the state of international and domestic affairs of the Cossack polity at the time of Bohdan Khmelnytskyi's passing.
Opinion in the Hetmanate, where the well-educated and cosmopolitan Cossack ruler's benefactions and patronage of the arts were very well-known, remained somewhat different.
In the early nineteenth century, for example, most Poles identified "Ukraine" as the region around Kiev, that is, the Kiev Province of the Russian Empire (for them, Volhynia and Podolia, to say nothing of Austrian Galicia, were not part of Ukraine); many Russians, including so-called "Little Russians" or Ukrainians, defined it in terms of the area around the city of Kharkiv and east to Kursk and Voronezh, that is, the lands of the old "Hetmanate" and Sloboda Ukraine (most of which was never a part of Poland), while still others thought of Ukraine in terms of the entire region from the Carpathians to the Kuban, that is, the entire expanse of the Pontic Steppe and beyond.
Very little of this increase was the result of annexation, as the areas Russia annexed after the Smuta, the Ukrainian hetmanate, and the Baltic provinces were all low in population.
The Zaporozhians of southern Ukraine, however, always retained a certain autonomy and after the death of Khmelnytsky in 1657, more and more looked to their own local leader or Otaman (from the Turkish am, "father") first, and the ruler of the entire Cossack state, dubbed by historians "'the Hetmanate," second.
After 1660 Cossack Ukraine was divided into the largely pro-Muscovite Left-Bank (eastern) Hetmanate and the Right-Bank (western) Hetmanate, which initially rejected Muscovite control and maneuvered between Poland and the Ottoman Porte.
The 17th century brought more social change: Russian merchant groups; new model troops (most recruited from the peasantry) and the foreign experts to train them; garrison forces on the steppe and Siberia including odnodvortsy, Cossacks, musketeers (many recruited from runaway serfs); Bashkirs; Indian, Armenian, and Greek merchants in Astrakhan and Volga towns; Bukharan merchants in Siberia; a whole "German neighborhood" in Moscow; the entire Hetmanate of Ukrainian Cossacks, Ukrainian nobility, merchants, and state peasants; Old Believers.
Each hetman, with his foreign allies, tried to eliminate his opponent(s) and to establish a united Hetmanate on the both banks of the Dnieper.
To get the icon to speak to us, Plokhy puts the icon into its historical context, which is the Cossack Hetmanate state founded by the Treaty of Pereiaslav in 1654.
In the mid-17th century, the Zaporizhian Cossacks wrested control of contemporary east-central Ukraine from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and established a polity of their own, the Hetmanate, under the protection of the Muscovite tsar.
The border between the latter states has shifted over time, and some parts of Ukraine have lived much longer under Poland (Galicia: 1386-1772, 1918-39) and others much longer under Russia and its Soviet successor (the Hetmanate and Sloboda Ukraine: since the mid-17th century until independence in 1991, interrupted by the German occupation of 1941-43).