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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a family of marine fish of the order Scleroparei. The body is covered with small scales. Most species have two dorsal fins; however, Pleurogrammus has only one. There are one to five lateral stripes. The body usually measures no more than 0.5 m in length, although some species are as long as 1.5 m. The Hexagrammidae are encountered in the North Pacific. There are seven genera, encompassing 13 species. In the seas of the Soviet Far East there are seven species of the genera Hexagrammus, Pleurogrammus, and Agrammus.

The majority of Hexagrammidae inhabit the bottom of the ocean near the shore, but the atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius) and Pleurogrammus azonus also live in the open sea. The eggs are deposited on stony surfaces in places with strong currents. Pleurogrammus are commercially significant in the USSR, while the lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus) is important in North America. The flesh of Hexagrammidae is used fresh, smoked, or canned.


Rutenberg, E. P. “Obzor ryb semeistva terpugovykh.” Trudy Instituta Okeanologii AN SSSR, 1962, vol. 59.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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During this time, the AIs for Pleuronectidae and Hexagrammidae indicated a slight decline in relative abundance of Pacific cod, whereas the Cottidae index indicated a greater decline in Pacific cod abundance.
Spawning and development of greenlings (family Hexagrammidae).
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Analyses were conducted separately for each fish family that composed at least 20% of total abundance (Hexagrammidae, Scorpaenidae, and Gadidae).
Three families (Hexagrammidae [greenlings], Scorpaenidae [rockfishes], and Gadidae [codfishes]) each composed at least 20% of the total abundance and together accounted for more than 80% of all fishes sighted.
This member of the greenling family (Hexagrammidae) is distributed in Russian and Alaskan waters where it is usually found in dense aggregations and associated with areas of fast currents, such as the passes between the Aleutian Islands (Lowe et al., 2002).
(1997): 1) cephalopods: squid and octopus; 2) flatfish: Pleuronectidae; 3) forage fish: Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi), Pacific sandlance (Ammodytes hexapterus), eulachon (Thaleichthys pacificus), and capelin (Mallotus villosus); 4) gadids: walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma), Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus), and other Gadidae, 5) hexagrammids: Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius) and other Hexagrammidae; 6) salmon: Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.); and 7) other: rockfish (Sebastes spp.), sculpins (Cottidae), pricklebacks (Stichaeidae), skates (Raja spp.), lamprey (Lampetra spp.), sharks, and other demersal fish.