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(hēdät`sä), Native North Americans, also known as the Minitari and the Gros Ventre. Their language belongs to the Siouan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). After their separation from the CrowCrow,
indigenous people of North America whose language belongs to the Siouan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages) and who call themselves the Absaroka, or bird people.
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, with whom they were united before the historic period, they occupied several agricultural villages on the upper Missouri River in North Dakota and were in close alliance with the occupants of other villages, the ArikaraArikara
, Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Caddoan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). Archaeological evidence shows that they occupied the banks of the upper Missouri River since at least the 14th cent.
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 and the MandanMandan
, indigenous people of North America whose language belongs to the Siouan branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). The Mandan were a sedentary tribe of the Plains area and were culturally connected with their neighbors on the Missouri
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. The Hidatsa villages, with circular earth lodges, were enclosed by an earthen wall. Among other Hidatsa traits were the cultivation of corn and an annual organized buffalo hunt. They had a complex social organization and elaborate ceremonies, including the sun dance. After the smallpox epidemic of 1837, they moved up the Missouri and established themselves close to the trading post of Fort Berthold. Together with the Arikara and Mandan, many Hidatsa reside on the Fort Berthold Reservation in North Dakota. There were some 1,500 Hidatsa in the United States in 1990.


See A. W. Bowers, Hidatsa Social and Ceremonial Organization (1965).

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References in periodicals archive ?
Throughout much of the eighteenth century, as Sioux groups migrated westward onto the Plains, they lived in the shadows of the powerful semisedentary tribes that inhabited the upper Missouri, the Mandans, Hidatsas, and Arikaras.
Settled in stationary villages established on bluffs overlooking the Missouri and surrounded by fortifications comprised of a combination of trenches and "a kind of stockade, principally made of driftwood," the numerous Arikaras, Mandans, and Hidatsas had little trouble warding off early Sioux incursions.
Although the Mandans and Hidatsas maintained a longstanding alliance, conflict marked those tribes' relations with the Arikaras, who lived downstream.
For more information on the Three Affiliated Tribes, see the following official website for the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara Nation, which includes excellent and very useful historical background information:http://www.mhanation.com/main/main.html
One year later, in 1907, the Hidatsa population was 468; and the 1930 census recorded the Arikara as numbering 420.
What distinguishes the groups in this area from the Plains Village Mandan and Hidatsa along the Missouri is the fact that they grew only corn whereas the Middle Missouri groups also grew beans, squash, sunflowers and tobacco along with corn as part of their horticultural repetoire.
The detailed account of Maxidiwiac or "Buffalo Bird Woman", an Hidatsa elder, was recorded in the early 1900's and provides an in-depth account of her perceptions of traditonal Hidatsa agriculture (Wilson 1987).
(13.) Wilson notes in his foreword how he came to study the Hidatsa culture, and how the autobiography was constructed: "During these [ten] years my faithful interpreter and helper has been Edward Goodbird, grandson of Small Ankle, a chief of the Hidatsas in the trying years following the terrible smallpox winter; and my principal informants have been Goodbird's mother, Waheenee-wea, or Buffalo-Bird Woman, and her brother, Wolf Chief.
Wilson."(8) In fact, as Brumble has pointed out, this autobiography was never "told" to Wilson but was compiled from several sources.(9) It chronicles the life of Waheenee-wea, or Buffalo-Bird Woman, an Hidatsa woman approximately eighty-three years old.
The book's chapters, which outline the various daily routines and traditional attitudes Wilson believed characterized a nineteenth-century Hidatsa woman's life, take the reader from "A Little Indian Girl" to "The Voyage Home." Narrated in the first person, the autobiography provides a seemingly intimate view of Waheenee's thoughts -- from birth to marriage to the adjustment to Euro-American culture.
Perplexed by one of the questions we raised, she retreated into another room and emerged several minutes later clutching a dusty copy of Bowers' 1965 Hidatsa Social and Ceremonial Organization under one arm.
Writing within a Boasian tradition, Bowers offers up a richly detailed account of Hidatsa social organization situated in the ethnographic present.