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(Greek, Hieron). In Syracuse:
Hiero I the Elder. Born in Gela, date unknown; died 467 B.C. in Aetna. Ruler of the city of Gela (484-478 B.C.); tyrant of the state of Syracuse (478-467); first to bear the title of archon. Having routed the Etruscan fleet in 474 near Cumae, Hiero I the Elder subdued the cities of southern Italy, including Messana and Rhegium. The state of Syracuse was at its height under Hiero I.
Hiero II the Younger. Born circa 306 B.C.; died circa 215 B.C. in Syracuse. Tyrant of Syracuse (268-215); bore the title of king. He conducted a successful struggle against the Mamertini in 265. Early in the First Punic War (264-241), Hiero II the Younger supported the Carthaginians, but after the siege of Messana and Syracuse by Rome (264), he concluded a peace treaty with Rome in 263, thus assuring the independence of Syracuse. In the Second Punic War (218-201), he sided with the Romans.
Both Hieros encouraged the development of agriculture, crafts, building, and military technology, and both were patrons of art and literature.
REFERENCEBerve, H. König Hieron II. Munich, 1959.
S. S. SOLOV’EVA