Sly's garbled language in the induction to The Shrew establishes a pattern of conflation: Richard is conflated with William; the lines from different parts of The Spanish Tragedy and from A Shrew are joined together in a mosaic, and, finally, Sly conflates Hieronimo
It became such a well-known play that it developed a nickname, "Jeronimo" (after its protagonist Hieronimo
), and was much alluded to and parodied in dozens of dramas.
A large majority of the signals therefore consist of an enter and some combination of proper names (Hamlet, Faustus, Hieronimo
); titles or professions (queen, bishop, merchant); and generic types or collective nouns (army, citizens, others, servants, soldiers, women).
In the tragedy, the revenger-playwright Hieronimo
, who we indeed last hear of being led in triumph by the ghost of Andrea to "where Orpheus plaies," thus becomes in Hutson's reading--as judge, jury, and executioner, as well as dramatist--expressive of a union of popular and poetic modes of justice.
This kind of siege-warfare power is what The Return from Parnassus mocks in remarking that Marston "Brings the great battering ram of tearmes to towne." (11) The association of exalted diction with military force is not surprising: "At its core, then, Renaissance rhetoric is animated by a fantasy of power in which the orator, wielding words more deadly than swords, takes on the world and emerges victorious in every encounter." (12) Perhaps this explains why Tamburlaine's innovative stage rhetoric was ridiculed more widely and fiercely than any other model for imitation (Thomas Kyd's raving Hieronimo
is a distant second): it was associated, by plot, with the most extreme form of social climbing--a shepherd rising to emperor by sheer will and violence.
de Azevedo issued an order that no "infidel" would be able to marry at times of the year prohibited by the Church.
In sua vece, uscivano due ulteriori contributi con la trascrizione, tratta dal codice marciano, delle novelle di Julia e Pruneo e di Hieronimo
Thus, for example, glosses by Antonio da Tempo (Venice, 1477), Francesco Filelfo (Bologna, 1476), and Hieronimo
Squarzafico (Venice, 1484) present Petrarch as a civic humanist and defender of Milanese Ghibellinism; Giovanni Andrea Gesualdo (Naples, 1533) recreates the poet as the epitome of Castiglionesque courtiership; Bernardino Daniello (Venice, 1541) stresses Petrarch's classical erudition in terms which will inform Du Bellay's project in La Deffence et illustration de la langue francoyse; and Reformation commentators such as Antonio Brucioli (Ferrara, 1548) and Lodovico Castelvetro (Basel, 1582) cast Petrarch as a proto-Protestant, a model particularly attractive to, and, as Kennedy shows, readily adopted by, the Sidneys in England.
Once lampooned by Dekker as taking "mad Hieronimo
's part, to get service among the mimics," Ben Jonson offers a number of instructions to the boy players of Cynthia's Revels, among them an enjoinder not to play "with a dead imitation" (1.3).