Higher Plants

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Higher Plants


(embryonic plants—Embryobionta, Embryophyta; shoot-bearing plants—Cormophyta, Cormobionta; and telomic plants—Telomophyta, Telomobionta), one of the two subkingdoms of the plant world, including at least 300,000 plant species of the groups (divisions) Tracheophyta (Psilophytaceae), Bryophyta (liverworts and mosses), Psilopsida (Psilotum and Tmesipteris), Lycopodiales, Equisetales, ferns, gymnosperms, and flowering plants, or angiosperms. Unlike lower plants, higher plants are complexly differentiated multicellular organisms adapted to life on the ground (with the exception of a few clearly secondary aquatic forms) and characterized by regular alternation of two generations: sexual (gametophyte) and asexual (sporophyte). Multicellular sporangia, in which fixed spores are formed, develop in the sporophytes of higher plants; sex organs (gametangia) develop in gametophytes. However, in some gymnosperms (the genera Gnetum and Welwitshcia) and all flowering plants gametangia disappeared in the course of evolution.

Sporangia are either identical or, more often, differentiated into two types—microsporangia and megasporangia; but gametangia are always of two types—male (antheridium) and female (archegonium). Antheridia and archegonia are protected by multicellular walls. The female gamete (egg cell) is always single and immobile. In higher plants the zygote develops into a multicellular embryo that passes through the first stages of development inside the female gametophyte. The sporophyte in higher plants is generally divided into three main organs: leaf, stem, and root.

Most higher plants develop special conducting tissue, xylem and phloem, which is reduced in some groups. There is an epidermis with a cuticle and typical stomata. The chlorophyll of higher plants does not contain additional pigments, and the photosynthesizing parts are green. Certain marine algae were the ancestors of the higher plants. Reliable fossil remains of higher plants are known beginning with the Silurian period.


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References in periodicals archive ?
47 acres) may contain over 750 types of trees and 1500 species of higher plants and it is estimated that one hectare of Amazon rainforest contains about 900 tons of living plants.
Higher plants occupied the position next to debris both by percentage of occurrence and percentage of total points.
Cytogenetic effects of 2,4-D and amitrole in relation to nuclear volume and DNA content in some higher plants, Can.
The purpose of this process--identical to the purpose of sex in higher plants and animals--is to exchange genetic material, giving selection an opportunity t6 work on new combinations of traits.
It has been well documented that higher plants orient growth by sensing environmental clues such as gravity, water, and light.
Although the visually dominant higher plants and animals lack diversity, the smaller salt marsh animals and plants are more diverse than meets the eye.
Chlorophyll biosynthesis in higher plants was carried and accomplished by sequential reactions, D-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), porphobilinogen (PBG), uroporphyrinogen III (Urogen III), coproporphyrinogen III (Coprogen III), protoporphyrin IX (Proto IX), Mg-protoporphyrin IX (Mg- Proto IX) and protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) were the major synthetic precursors during these sequential reactions (Ilag et al.
Horticulturalists, imaging specialists, and other contributors examine recent developments in image analysis of higher plants, particularly for monitoring crops and detecting environmental stress in wild plants.
Twenty-five per cent of prescription drugs in the US contain plant extracts or active principles prepared from higher plants and in Japan herbal medicinal preparations are in greater demand than mainstream pharmaceutical products.
Darwin wrote to Joseph Dalton Hooker in 1879, about 20 years after the publication of "On the Origin of Species," that the rapid development of higher plants in recent geological times was "an abominable mystery.
Pakistan obtains more than 80 per cent of its medicaments from higher plants.

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