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(both: hĭjī`rə, hĕj`ərə) [Ar.,=Hijra=breaking off of relations], the departure of the prophet MuhammadMuhammad
[Arab.,=praised], 570?–632, the name of the Prophet of Islam, one of the great figures of history, b. Mecca. Early Life

Muhammad was the son of Abdallah ibn Abd al-Muttalib and his wife Amina, both of the Hashim clan of the dominant Kuraish (Quraysh)
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 from Mecca in Sept., 622. Muhammad was a monotheist and preached against the polytheism of the Meccan religion. This aroused the hostility of the merchant leaders of his native city, who derived much of their wealth from pilgrimages to Mecca and its surrounding cities. Forced to flee from his enemies, Muhammad went to Yathrib (later renamed MedinaMedina
, Arabic Medinat an-Nabi [city of the Prophet] or Madinat Rasul Allah [city of the apostle of Allah], city (1993 pop. 608,226), Hejaz, W Saudi Arabia. It is situated c.
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), where he became ruler. The Muslim era is dated from the first day (July 16, 622, in the Western calendar) of the lunar year in which the Hegira took place, and the abbreviation A.H. is used with that year (A.H. 1) and subsequent years.



the emigration of Muhammad and his followers (muhajirun) from Mecca to Yathrib (Medina), which Muslim tradition dates at Sept. 8–21 (or 24), 622.

During the reign of the caliph Umar I (634–44), the year of the Hegira was proclaimed the first year in the Muslim era; hence, the Muslim era is also called the Hegira. Calendars of the lunar Hegira are used in many countries of the Near and Middle East and in certain other countries; calendars of the solar Hegira are used in Iran, Afghanistan, Turkey, and elsewhere. When converted to the Gregorian system, the beginning of the lunar Hegira corresponds to July 16, 622, and that of the solar Hegira to Mar. 20–21, 622, the vernal equinox.

The Muslim lunar year contains 354 days, and the distribution of days by month in the Hegira calendars differs from the distribution in the Gregorian calendar (used virtually throughout the world), so that the translation of dates from the Hegira to the Gregorian system and vice versa requires special formulas and tables. For example, the year 1976 of the Gregorian calendar corresponds to 1396/1397 of the lunar Hegira and to 1355/1356 of the solar Hegira.


Tsybul’skii, V. V. Sovremennye kalendari stran Blizhnego i Srednego Vostoka: Sinkhronisticheskie tablitsy ipoiasneniia. Moscow, 1964.
Seleshnikov, S. I. Istoriia kalendaria i khronologiia. Moscow, 1970.

Hegira (Hijrah)

Muhammad’s flight from Mecca to Medina (622). [Islamic Hist.: EB, V: 39–40]
See: Escape


, Hejira
1. the departure of Mohammed from Mecca to Medina in 622 ad; the starting point of the Muslim era
2. the Muslim era itself
References in periodicals archive ?
They live and work under the command of senior Hijras known as 'Gurus' whom they respect and follow (Nanda, 1990).
71) Therefore, even though standard definitions of hijras have proven difficult to formulate, they are generally noted as a third sex, (72) with the term hijra itself meaning "a man that is less than a perfect man" and is equivalent to eunuchs.
The word Hijra is a masculine noun, most widely translated into English as eunuch or hermaphrodite.
Before boarding the train, she'd warn me not be scared of hijras who would invade the ladies' compartment, clapping their hands wildly, often every close to one's face.
There are at least two musafirkhanas(motels) on Station Road in the middle of the city where hijra and male sex workers are available round the clock to provide paid sex services to clients.
We discovered several factors that persuade one to join the hijra community; they include a passion, a desire to express their feminine identity more explicitly, poor economic conditions and, above all, to live a carefree life.
The protest staged against Taxilla Police unveiled a distinct hijra power, revealing the existence of an All Pakistan Eunuch Rights Association, and lead to an emergence of its multilingual president, Almas Bobby, as a hero.
Still to come before we even get to Advent, which is the correct time for Christians to start thinking out Christmas, are the festivals of Al Hijra, Diwali and Chanukah to be celebrated by the Muslim, Hindu and the Jewish faiths of our community.
Des policiers de la localite d'El-Ariche dans la region du Sinai (nord-est) s'appretaient a arreter des individus soupconnes d'appartenir au groupe Al-Takfir wal Hijra, lorsqu'ils ont ete vises par des tirs.
A senior Egyptian security official announced on Sunday that it had arrested "the most wanted (individual) in the Sinai," a leader of Al-Takfeer wal Hijra, an al-Qaeda inspired group, reported the pan-Arab daily AL HAYAT Monday.
According to historian Essam Abdel-Raouf, the tradition of making konafa started around year 58 in the Hijra calendar (early eighth century AD), when the Damascus-based Muslim ruler Mu'aweya Bin Abi Sufeyan complained of fatigue and dizziness during Ramadan.
A hijra association welcomed Chaudhry's order, saying it would ease their suffering.