Hipparion


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Hipparion

 

a genus of tridactylous fossil horse; existed from the Upper Miocene until the end of the Pliocene. Hipparion was a small horse (height, up to 1.5 m at the withers). The molars were shorter than in horses of the genus Equus, and the side toes (second and fourth) were small and could not spread outward to prevent the limbs from sinking into the ground. Hipparion lived in large herds (up to several thousand) on grassy, savanna-like plains with occasional groves and bodies of water. During the Upper Miocene they were distributed throughout North America, which is the first place they appeared; later they settled all the continents except South America and Australia.

More than 50 species of Hipparion are known; they all became extinct and left no descendants. Hipparion was replaced by the single-hoofed horse, which arose from the closely related genus Pliohippus. Better adapted to the conditions of life in the plains, Pliohippus moved from North America to all continents.

REFERENCES

Kovalevskii, V. O. Paleontologiia loshadei. Moscow, 1948.
Gromova, V. “Gipparion (rod Hipparion).” Tr. Paleontologicheskogo in-ta, 1952, vol. 36.
Gabuniia, L. K. K istorii gipparionov. Moscow, 1959.

B. A. TROFIMOV

References in periodicals archive ?
The comparative measurements of the cheek teeth of Hipparion sp.
The advanced features include increasing crown height and shortening of the protocone with distinct lingual flattening associate them with the Bou Hanifia hipparion, "Cormohipparion" africanum, dated to 10.
Family Equidae Gray, 1821 Subfamily Equinae Steinmann and Doderlein, 1890 Genus Sivalhippus (Lydekker 1877) Sivalhippus nagriensis (Hussain, 1971) Synonymy Hipparion nagriensis Hussain, 1971 Hipparion theobaldi nagriensis Zhegallo, 1978 Cormohipparion cf.
Systematics and phylogeny of Hipparion, Neohipparion, Nannippus, and Cormohipparion (Mammalia, Equidae) from the Miocene and Pliocene of the New World.
These authors have suggested that the presence of hipparionine in the Old World resulted from the dispersal of one monophyletic group or species of Hipparion (e.
In the Siwaliks, Hipparion first appeared by a single migration, recorded in lithologic boundary of the Nagri Formation (Pilbeam et al.
The Hasnot tragulids are placed in Late Miocene to Pliocene age based on its associated fauna of the Late Miocene to Pliocene taxa such as Selenoportax Pachyportax Tragoportax and Hipparion.
Keywords: Vertebrate fossils, Cremohipparion, Hipparion, Sivalhippus, Siwaliks.
salmontanus, Selenoportax vexillarius, Pachyportax latidens, Gazella lydekkeri, Kobus porrecticornis, Caprotragoides potwaricus, Dorcatherium majus, Dorcabune anthracotherioides, Propotamochoerus hysudricus, Hippopotamodon sivalensis, Sivalhippus theobaldi, Sivalhippus perimense, Hipparion sp.
Patterns of phylogeny and rates of evolution in fossil horses: hipparions from the Miocene and Pliocene of North America.