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the science of the horse. The first works on hippology, which appeared several hundred years before the Common Era, contained primarily practical information on the appearance, breaking in, and use of horses. The science later expanded and by the early 20th century included branches dealing with the origin, evolution, anatomy, and physiology of the horse; the biology of reproduction; breed formation; the breeding and training of horses; and horse trials.
In Russia prior to the 1930’s, hippology was taught in cavalry and artillery schools and other specialized educational institutions, and textbooks were published on the subject (the last textbook by M. O. Lavrinovich, Hippology, was published in Leningrad in 1925). The most complete modern collection on hippology is The Book on Horses in five volumes, edited by S. M. Budennyi (1952–60). The problems of hippology constitute the scientific discipline of horse breeding.