Histones


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Histones

 

a group of proteins weakly exhibiting the characteristics of bases. Histones are classified as simple proteins. They are contained in the nuclei of the majority of cells in animals. The proteins of erythrocytes and the thymus gland are particularly rich in histones. The alkaline properties of histones result from the presence of the basic amino acids—histidine, lysine, and arginine. Unlike the majority of proteins, histones contain almost no tryptophan. The molecular weight of histones ranges from 5,000 to 37,000. In the cell nuclei (particularly in the chromosomes), histones form a complex with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)—nucleohistone. It is thought that the joining of histones to DNA and their breaking away regulates the synthesis of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and hence the biosynthesis of proteins.

REFERENCE

Gistony i perenos geneticheskoi informatsii. Moscow, 1968. (Translated from English.)

E. V. PETUSHKOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Although SAHA pretreatment blocked histone deacetylation in the brain and contributed to reducing attractive forces between histone proteins and the DNA phosphate backbone, resulting in a more relaxed and accessible chromatin structure, there was no obvious improvement in locomotion.
Pelicci, "Histone deacetylase inhibitors and the promise of epigenetic (and more) treatments for cancer," Nature Reviews Cancer, vol.
The novel Camello HAT family has been identified in zebrafish and includes functional HAT showing specificity towards histone H4 and perinuclear localization [13].
Clozapine attenuated the decrease in histone H3 acetylation at lysine 9 residues in the prefrontal cortex and ameliorated memory impairments and social deficits in mice treated with phencyclidine [34].
They expected that yeast genetically engineered to carry fewer copies of certain histone genes than normal or control yeast would have chromatin changes that would result in the yeast living less than controls.
(11) These HDACIs possess specific structural components that trigger diverse functions like interruption in the cell cycle, angiogenesis, and immunomodulation by acting on histone and non-histone proteins.
The main epigenetic mechanisms that in mammalian cells contribute to the regulation of gene expression include DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications (such as methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation), and ubiquitination (21).
"Conceptually, we could use the modification, which is the methylation of adenosine residue, as a 'code' in mRNA to target histone modifications to turn gene on or off," Zhao said.
These epigenetic modifications include DNA methylation (cytosine methylation), histone posttranslational modifications, and miRNAs (Figure 1) [4].
Independent evolution of histone proteins and their prominent sequence variation in ciliates as compared to other animals have made them potential candidate for cross check analysis.
Schreiber, "Nuclear histone acetylases and deacetylases and transcriptional regulation: HATs off to HDACs," Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, vol.

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