Hitchcock, Sir Alfred
Hitchcock, Sir Alfred,1899–1980, English-American film director, writer, and producer, b. London. Hitchcock began his career as a director in 1925 and became prominent with The 39 Steps (1935) and The Lady Vanishes (1938). In 1940 he began working in the United States. In his suspense thrillers, Hitchcock unsettled audiences through the use of intense set pieces and suggestions that normality as usually defined masks humanity's true and much darker nature and that the veneer of civilization conceals a world of deadly menace. Hitchcock's style is so distinctive that any filmmaker working in the suspense genre invariably risks comparison to him. His best films include Strangers on a Train (1951), in which a tennis player is invited by a fellow rail passenger to trade murders; Rear Window (1954), a thriller about voyeurism; Vertigo (1958), an obsessive romance in which a woman uncannily resembles the dead beloved; North by Northwest (1959), in which an advertising executive is chased across the United States by foreign agents as a result of a mistaken identity; and Psycho (1960), a terrifying work that has had enormous influence on film and cultural history in which a mother-obsessed transvestite murders a beautiful thief. His other films include Rebecca (1940), Shadow of a Doubt (1943), Notorious (1946), The Birds (1963), Frenzy (1972), and Family Plot (1977). Hitchcock also had two successful television series (1955–62 and 1963–65). One of the best known directors of his time, he often made humorous cameo appearances in his own films. He was knighted in 1980.
See F. Truffaut, Hitchcock (1967, rev. ed. 1985); biographies by J. R. Taylor (1978), D. Spoto (1983), P. McGilligan (2004), and P. Ackroyd (2016); studies by R. Durgnat (1974), D. Spoto (1976, repr. 1992), P. Conrad (2001), R. Wood (1969 and 1989, rev. ed. 2002), D. Thomson (2009), and M. Wood (2015).