The study of the Hitopadesa offers many doors for exploration in the history of language and power.
To treat the Hitopadesa as only tales and stories, however, does not get to the essential point of the content.
As noted, the first known translation of the Hitopadesa into Persian is Mufarrih al-qulub.
A major consequence of an earlier, fifteenth-century dating is that the Persian translation of the Hitopadesa then coincides with the budding development of Hindi language and literature.
"Ayam nijaH paro veti gaNanaa laghuchetasaam udaaracharitam tu vasudhaiva kutumbakam" (This is my own and that is a stranger -- that is the calculation of the narrow-minded; for the magnanimous hearts, however, the entire earth is but a family -- Hitopadesa
, chapter 3, p.
It is essential, likewise, to establish how other fable-narrative traditions down the ages like those evolving with the Pancatantra and its recension the Hitopadesa contribute yet another important link to the history of the Indian narrative tradition, where niti (policy) evolves as the third important strand influencing the thought, content and style of narration.
The second sentence of the prologue to Hitopadesa states that the work "inculcates the knowledge of niti-nitividyam dadati." (10) Niti could be roughly translated as "policy".
Likewise, each section in Panchtantra and its recensions, including the Hitopadesa, has a "Frame story", in which the characters tell different other stories in that section.
(9.) Satyanarayana dasa, Hitopadesa
(Faridabad, India: Jiva Institute, 1997), 20-21.
The Chairman has authorised the printing of the Hitopadesa
, & dictionaries are expected by the first fleet.
99), where the original Hitopadesa
text (II.4) reads tam nihantum puraskaryah Sadras tasya sainikah.
Stylistically, the individual kathas resemble the prose narratives in other Mina texts such as the Janamsakhi Guru Nanak - and by extension the classical prose texts like the Hitopadesa
that serve as their formal models - in that each katha ends with a salok that neatly and epigrammatically encapsulates its narrative action or exegetical meaning.