Johann Wilhelm Hittorf

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Hittorf, Johann Wilhelm

 

Born Mar. 27, 1824, in Bonn; died Nov. 28, 1914, in Münster. German chemist and physicist. Professor at the Münster Academy from 1852 to 1889.

In 1853-59, Hittorf established that in the electrolysis of solutions, positive and negative ions are not transported at the same rate; he called the fraction of the total amount of electricity carried by each kind of ion the transport numbers. He developed a method of determining them and measured the transport numbers of many ions. Hittorf investigated the spectra of incandescent gases (1864) and the passage of electricity through highly rarefied gases (1869-83) and observed (1869) and described the properties of cathode rays, thus initiating the study of them.

WORKS

Über die Wanderungen der lonen während der Elektrolyse (1853-1859), parts 1-2. Leipzig, 1891. (Ostwald’s Klassiker der exakten Wissenschaften, nos. 21 and 23.)

REFERENCE

Beckmann, E. “W. Hittorf.” Berichte der Deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft, 1914, vol. 47, p. 3233.
References in periodicals archive ?
The first knowledge about existence of electrons brought Wilhelm Hittorf from Gottingen and William Crook in 1872.
Hay que mencionar tambien los estudios de Jhon Daniell (1790-1845), Johann Hittorf (1824-191499, Svante Arrhenius (1859-1972), Walter Nerst (1864-1941), Jacobus van't Hoff (1852-1911), quienes supieron interpretar observaciones y sistematizar conceptos conducentes al desarrollo de los modelos sobre los cuales descansa la electroquimica [14].
They were as follows: 1) Laplace's nebular hypothesis [22, 23], 2) Helmholtz' contraction theory [24, 25], 3) Cagniard de la Tour's discovery of critical phenomena [26, 27] and Andrew's elucidation of critical temperatures [28, 29], 4) Kirchhoff's formulation of his law of thermal emission [30-32], and 5) the discovery of pressure broadening in gases by Plucker, Hittorf, Wullner, Frankland, and Lockyer [33-37].
In 1865, Plucker and Hittorf published their classic paper on the appearance of gaseous spectra [33].
The building is the work of Jacques Hittorf, the great architect who designed the Place de la Concorde in Paris.
Cuando el arquitecto Hittorf le presento sus planos para el nuevo boulevard, Haussmann se los del volvio diciendo: "No es suficientemente ancho.
Courbet also claimed to have asked Hittorf, the architect of the Gare du Nord in Paris, to give artists the mission of depicting the story of the French departments.
i] is the diffusion coefficient in the polymer matrix in the Hittorf frame of reference.
In the case of diffusion of a binary mixture in a polymer membrane, the following equations can be derived from Eq 2 if the Hittorf frame of reference is also used:
Christine Boyer investigates how a panoramic city was envisioned and constructed in Paris from Perreymonde's mid-nineteenth century urban plans, through Hittorf and Haussmann to the modernist city of Le Corbusier (The City of Collective Memory -- Its Historical Imagery and Architectural Entertainments, Cambridge Massachusetts, London England: MIT Press, 1994).
Eiffel later became one of the three designers who reshaped the face of Paris in the 19th century; the other two were engineer Jacques Hittorf and city planner Eugene Haussman.