Beninde, J., Feldmeier, S., Werner, M., Peroverde, D., Schulte, U., Hochkirch
, A., & Veith, M.
Alternatively sexual exclusion, where one species (often the males of that species) out-competes the other for mates, can limit fitness through reproductive interference (Groning and Hochkirch
2008), as observed between the tetrigids: Tetrix ceperoi and Tetrix subulata (Hochkirch
, "Reproductive interference between animal species," The Quarterly Review of Biology, vol.
Heterospecific courtship and mating are expected to be strongly deterred by both natural and sexual selection in free-living populations (Groning and Hochkirch
, 2008), but experiments across various taxa, including insects (Dukas, 2010; Costa-Schmidt and Machado, 2012), fish (Ryan and Wagner, 1987), and birds (Jones and Hunter, 1999), suggest that evolutionary biases in sexual preference can be accidentally or artificially exploited, and the manipulation of ambiguous chemical, morphological, or behavioural triggers can induce heterospecific courtship and even copulation.
Additionally, founder population size must be large to avoid the problems associated with genetic inbreeding and outbreeding depression (Moir et al., 2012; Witzenberger and Hochkirch
, K, Brandt, H, "Fullscale Hydrodynamic Force Measurement on the Berlin Sail-Force-Dynamometer." 14th Chesapeake Sailing Yacht Symposium, 1-13 (1999)
Acrididae: Chorthippus spp.; Gryllidae: Gryllus spp.; Tettigoniidae: Conocephalus, Platycleis, Metrioptera spp.; see Harz, 1957; Uvarov, 1977; Harrison, 1980; Zera and Denno, 1997; Zera, 2005; Hochkirch
and Damerau, 2009).
Contained in the church of the Alpine village of Hochkirch
, 40 miles north east of Dresden, is a Latin memorial to a Scots nobleman.
Additionally, ECO-Assistant can be integrated with a vessel's cargo planning system to realize even greater fuel saving potential, optimizing ballast water management", Dr Karsten Hochkirch
, Head of Fluid Engineering, FutureShip quoted as saying.
1995; Gause 1934; Hochkirch
& Groening 2012; Luan et al.
Though genetic introgression becomes a problem when alien and native species hybridise successfully (Groning & Hochkirch
2008), no live-born Cc/Cf hybrids are known to have occurred (Lavrov 1996), and attempts to deliberately produce them in captivity have so far failed (Zurowski 1983), despite observed copulations (Lavrov & Orlov 1973).