14] It has been proposed that HIV may become adsorbed to DC-SIGN on Hofbauer cells and/or infect Hofbauer cells.
DC-SIGN expression was noted in Hofbauer cells (Fig.
The Hofbauer cells have also been shown to be human leukocyte antigen (HLA) II+ , CD68+, CD14 low+, [CD4.
47) Heterogeneous placental hypermaturity, with only focally increased villous vascularity, villous cytotrophoblast density, Hofbauer cells, and nonapoptotic syncytial knotting, and a decreased extracellular matrix of chorionic villi are the characteristic features.
63) The PU features homogeneous placental hypermaturity and hypovascularity, with slender, pencillike chorionic villi; so-called terminal villous hypoplasia (13); increased extracellular matrix of chorionic villi and apoptotic syncytial knots; and decreased villous Hofbauer cells and villous cytotrophoblasts.