(16(p1381)) Inclusions are most frequently seen in the endothelial cells or Hofbauer cells
(macrophage-like cells within the stroma of the villi), which may show marked hyperplasia.
The stroma between the villi is edematous and there is an increase of Hofbauer cells
(placental macrophages responsible for the synthesis of leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukins), which will modify the metabolic and endocrinal functions of these placentas.
Histopathological analyses of these placental tissues revealed perivillous fibrinoid deposition, focal coarse calcifications, and moderate increase of Hofbauer cells
. The histological sections of the placental tissue, which were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, showed a focus of villous necrosis associated with calcifications.
HIV-1 in trophoblastic and villous Hofbauer cells
, and hematological precursors in eight week fetuses.
Because this technology allows detection of RNA transcripts while retaining the cellular morphology of the tissues, the researchers were able to localize Zika virus negative sense replicative RNA directly in placental Hofbauer cells
and neural cells/neurons of brains.
Microscopic examination showed that the main histopathological finding was that placental villous stroma was rather loose and, remarkably, presented numerous foamy/vacuolated Hofbauer cells
(Figures 1(a) and 1(b)).
It has been proposed that a breach in the trophoblast layer lining the chorionic villi may result in contact of Hofbauer cells
(specialised fetal macrophages) with maternal blood and amniotic fluid.
Zika virus replicative RNA was predominately observed in the Hofbauer cells
of the placental chorionic villi, as identified by immunohistochemistry studies with CD163 cell marker (Figure 3).
(24,57,64) When present, changes are mild and nonspecific and comprise chronic placentitis, with chronic villitis or increased Hofbauer cells
and patchy perivillous fibrin and mononuclear cells.
(HCs) express classic monocyte/macrophage markers, such as CD68 and are assumed to be placental macrophages located in the chorionic villous stroma (Joerink et al, 2011).
These stromal cells were of variable appearance, from rounded to spindle shaped, and had the morphologic features of villous stromal macrophages (Hofbauer cells
Microscopically, histiocytes were abundant in the maternal space (chronic intervillositis) and were noted within the fetal chorionic villi (Hofbauer cells
; Figure 1, panel A).