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Hofbauer cell and trophoblast cells show several similarities including characteristics used for identifying cell types like phagocytosis, non-specific esterase activity and expression of Fc receptors (Seval et al., 2007).
CD163 and CD68 immunostains demonstrated intensely positive staining in the hyperplastic population of stromal cells of both secondary and tertiary villi, confirming their identity as stromal macrophages, or Hofbauer cells. The CD163 highlighted the intensity of the Hofbauer cell hyperplasia--in some villi, the macrophages were tightly packed and confluent (Figure 2, A through F).
Placental pathology of Zika virus and microcephaly: viral infection of the placenta induces villous stromal macrophage (Hofbauer cell) proliferation and hyperplasia [published online ahead of print September 28, 2016].
(6) The former is related to low oxygen content of blood reaching the uterus and histologically features homogeneously delayed villous maturation, increased syncytial knots, increased villous cytotrophoblast and Hofbauer cell density and villous hypervascularity, and decreased extracellular matrix of chorionic villi, and the latter is secondary to focal hypoxemia of intervillous blood due to poor uteroplacental perfusion through spiral arterioles, and features heterogeneous villous hypermaturity, with other above mentioned histologic features focally present in less mature areas.
(16(p1381)) Inclusions are most frequently seen in the endothelial cells or Hofbauer cells (macrophage-like cells within the stroma of the villi), which may show marked hyperplasia.
The stroma between the villi is edematous and there is an increase of Hofbauer cells (placental macrophages responsible for the synthesis of leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukins), which will modify the metabolic and endocrinal functions of these placentas.
Histopathological analyses of these placental tissues revealed perivillous fibrinoid deposition, focal coarse calcifications, and moderate increase of Hofbauer cells. The histological sections of the placental tissue, which were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, showed a focus of villous necrosis associated with calcifications.
HIV-1 in trophoblastic and villous Hofbauer cells, and hematological precursors in eight week fetuses.
Because this technology allows detection of RNA transcripts while retaining the cellular morphology of the tissues, the researchers were able to localize Zika virus negative sense replicative RNA directly in placental Hofbauer cells and neural cells/neurons of brains.
Microscopic examination showed that the main histopathological finding was that placental villous stroma was rather loose and, remarkably, presented numerous foamy/vacuolated Hofbauer cells (Figures 1(a) and 1(b)).
It has been proposed that a breach in the trophoblast layer lining the chorionic villi may result in contact of Hofbauer cells (specialised fetal macrophages) with maternal blood and amniotic fluid.
Zika virus replicative RNA was predominately observed in the Hofbauer cells of the placental chorionic villi, as identified by immunohistochemistry studies with CD163 cell marker (Figure 3).