Hoffmann, Jules Alphonse

Hoffmann, Jules Alphonse,

1941–, French biologist, Ph.D. Univ. of Strasbourg, 1969. Hoffmann was a researcher at the French National Center for Scientific Research, Strasbourg, from 1974 to 2009. In 2011, he and Bruce BeutlerBeutler, Bruce Alan,
1957–, American immunologist and geneticist, b. Chicago, Ill., M.D. Univ. of Chicago, 1981. Beutler has been a professor and physician at Rockefeller Univ. (1984–86), a faculty member at the Univ.
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 shared half of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity; Ralph SteinmanSteinman, Ralph Marvin,
1943–2011, Canadian biologist, M.D. Harvard Medical School, 1968. He was a researcher and professor at Rockefeller Univ., New York City, from 1970 until his death in 2011.
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 was also awarded the prize for his discovery of dendritic cells. Hoffmann found that a gene called Toll, which was known to be involved in development of the fruit-fly embryo, was also involved in sensing pathogenic microorganisms. His discovery helped pave the way for the development of new therapies to fight inflammatory and infectious diseases.
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