Hokan


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Hokan

 

a group of linguistically related North American Indian tribes that include the Shasta, Achomawi, Karok, Pomo, and Yuma (see). In the early 17th century the Hokan inhabited the periphery of modern California. It has been suggested that they were the descendants of the area’s most ancient inhabitants, who had been supplanted by Indians of other language groups. All the Hokan were at the early tribal stage, engaging primarily in the gathering of wild grasses, roots, and acorns. Fishing and hunting were secondary occupations.

Many Hokan tribes were exterminated or died out as a result of the colonization of California, first by the Spanish and later by the USA; the attrition was particularly heavy during the California gold rush of 1849–51. According to the 1970 census, there are approximately 6,000 Hokan. The Hokan live in rural areas together with other Indians and in the cities of California; they subsist primarily by working as hired laborers.

References in periodicals archive ?
The Hokan of the Californian coastline and Baja California (Diegueno, Cochimi) were often specialized gatherers, and there were intertribal subdivisions: the coastal groups caught fish and collected seafood, and the inland groups did more hunting and collected plant foodstuffs.
Her expertise in diachronic studies permeates everything she ever wrote about, from proto-Muskoegean to Athabascan to Hokan; The Prehistory of Languages (Mouton 1969) is a classic.
Included also are several articles on the Hokan family, a much more controversial grouping, the validity of which is still inconclusive to this day.
Eastern Pomo (Hokan; McLendon 2003:112) (3) Kalel-xa -[k.sup.h]i ma-[??]r-al q'a-ne-le.
This constitutes the fundamental similarity across split-intransitive marking in the Yukatek case and in those split-S or fluid-S systems found, for example, in Hokan, Siouan, Caddoan, and Iroquoian languages.
(3) Other families or groups outside Asia that are SOV or predominantly SOV include Khoisan, Cushitic, Omotic, the Mande group of Niger-Kordofanian, Uralic (less Finnic), Papuan, Athabascan, Siouan, Uto-Aztecan, Hokan, Tanoan, Gulf, Chibchan-Paezan, Panoan, Tacanan, and Macro-Je.
Excessively high mortality in the "red oak" group in the Central Hardwood Forest Region as found at Land Between The Lakes (West Kentucky and Middle Tennessee) over the past 40 y (Wellbaum, 1989; Hokans, 1999; McQuaide, 2008) accentuates the problem by creating gaps.
Chuck Hokans has been promoted to senior vice president and chief marketing officer at United Bankers' Bank in Bloomington, Minn.
Phillips and Hokans (1994) call attention to the need for studies regarding ambulatory care services and homeless clients.