The purpose of the hole expansion (HE) test is to assess edge stretching performance of sheet metals, where a punch is forced through a prepared hole until edge cracking occurs.
f] are the initial and final specimen hole diameters, and [lambda] is the hole expansion ratio.
Hole expansion testing is fraught by excessive uncertainty and variation, and the results of which can be heavily influenced by specimen preparation technique and human subjectivity.
The hole expansion ratio ([lambda]) is generally regarded as a relative "local formability" parameter with limited application to edge-cracking analysis and prediction.
In the following a data analysis methodology is described, where a constrained statistical approach is used to identify hole expansion (HE) test data outliers.
We have proposed our very first algorithmic solution to deal with a possibly new and challenging problem of hole expansion in WSN.
This is because for a larger DNT the network acts slower with the hole expansion and hence, a number of new dead nodes cannot get reported fast enough.
Most challenging, perhaps is the concern that the hole expansion speed is normally unforeseeable and hence, we face a big trouble: a parameter set that is nicely suitable to a fast expansion setting can perform very poorly in a slow expansion setting.
The first system will be dedicated to measuring strains in sheet metal tests such as the hole expansion
test, forming limit test and the limiting dome height test and will be permanently attached to our sheet metal forming tester.
Situation B: Detect-to-undetected Node (DTUN): DTUN also has two possibilities: phenomenon shrinkage or hole expansion
inside the phenomenon.
Bearing, clamped, and adhesive modes of load transmission are all considered, as well as bearing mode with hole expansion
Now cells are available with separators that have a heat-resistant layer, which prevents hole expansion
, in the event of a puncture.