a breed of dairy cattle developed in Holland. In the past, Dutch cattle included three indigenous types: the Friesian (black and white), the Rheiniesel (red and white), and the Gröningen (white headed with red and black markings). In the 19th century these types developed into distinct breeds.
The characteristic features of the Holstein-Friesian cattle are broad, deep bodies with well-developed hindquarters. The back, loin, and rump are muscular. The weight of bulls ranges from 900 to 1,000 kg and of cows, from 550 to 600 kg. Annual milk production is 4,500 kg, with the record at 13,000 kg. As a result of purebreeding begun in the 1920’s and 1930’s and aimed at increasing the butter fat content, increases were achieved from 3.0–3.1 percent to 3.9–4.0 percent. The breed is widespread in the Netherlands (where it constitutes about 70 percent of all cattle), the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, the United States, Great Britain, Sweden, Italy, and Yugoslavia. In the USSR, the Holstein-Friesian cattle have been used to develop the Kholmogory, Chernopestraia, Tagil, Aulie-ata, and Bestuzhev breeds.
A. B. RUZHEVSKII