Holy League

Holy League,

in Italian history, alliance formed (1510–11) by Pope Julius IIJulius II,
1443–1513, pope (1503–13), an Italian named Giuliano della Rovere, b. Savona; successor of Pius III. His uncle Sixtus IV gave him many offices and created him cardinal.
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 during the Italian WarsItalian Wars,
1494–1559, series of regional wars brought on by the efforts of the great European powers to control the small independent states of Italy. Renaissance Italy was split into numerous rival states, most of which sought foreign alliances to increase their
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 for the purpose of expelling Louis XIILouis XII,
1462–1515, king of France (1498–1515), son of Charles, duc d'Orléans. He succeeded his father as duke. While still duke, he rebelled against the regency of Anne de Beaujeu and was imprisoned (1488), but was released (1491) by his cousin King Charles
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 of France from Italy, thereby consolidating papal power. Venice, the Swiss cantons, Ferdinand II of Aragón, Henry VIII of England, and Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I were the chief members of the league. The Swiss, who did most of the fighting, routed the French at Novara (1513), but in the same year Julius II died and the league fell apart. The French victory (1515) at MarignanoMarignano, battle of
, 1515, in the Italian Wars, fought by Francis I of France and his Venetian allies against the Swiss Confederates, who then controlled the duchy of Milan. It was fought (Sept. 13–14) near the town of Marignano (now Melegnano), 10 mi (16.
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 reestablished the French in Lombardy.
References in periodicals archive ?
In that same year, Henry joined the Holy League, a military alliance directed against France, and implemented an aggressive policy towards Scotland designed to curtail Scottish independence.
What was the name of the sea battle in 1571 when combined forces of the Holy League defeated the Ottoman Empire?
Part II of the collection, titled "Translations," includes excerpts of Lope de Vega's The Holy League (1603), Gonzalo de Illescas's The Second Part of the Pontifical and Catholic History (1606), Jean Desmares's Roxelana (1643), Gotthold Ephraim Lessing's Giangir; or the Rejected Throne (1748), and Denys Sichynsky's Roksoliana; Historical Opera in Three Acts with a Prologue (1911).
Pius V was a saint who had the reputation of a warrior because of the Holy League against the Turks; his implementation of the Council of Trent contributed to centralizing papal power.
During the last, long Holy League War (1684-1699) the Vatican did organize and finance a united Catholic (and for a time Russian) response to the Ottoman assault on Vienna in 1683.
In the Ionian Sea, closer in fact to Curzolaris than to Lepanto, the fleets of the Ottoman Empire and the Holy League clashed, and for the first time, the Christians won.
Mark Konnert's Local Politics in the French Wars of Religion also deals primarily with deeds as it attempts to untangle the complicated politics of factional affiliation in the towns of Champagne during the period when the Wars of Religion radicalized and a Holy League headed by the province's leading family, the Guises, placed itself in more and more overt opposition to the policies of compromise adopted by the Crown.
As Niccolo Capponi demonstrates here, this was true even for one of the rare instances in the sixteenth century when rival Catholic states (not including France) came together to battle infidel Muslims: the Holy League of 1570-73, whose sole, albeit spectacular, achievement was the destruction of the Ottoman fleet on 7 October 1571 (not at Lepanto, but off the Curzolaris Islands forty miles away).
The Christian navy, known as the fleet of the Holy League, sailed with the blessing of Pope Pius V who sanctified the war "waged under the protection of the golden figure of Christ.
When Athens came under attack by the Venetian forces of the Holy League in 1687, Turks used the temple as an ammunition store and most of the east side was destroyed by a huge blast.
The following year, the Turks are crushed by the Holy League in the Battle of Lepanto.