In the Iberian Peninsula, simians (anthropoids) are not recorded until well within the Miocene (late Aragonian), being represented by pliopithecoids (a Eurasian clade of stem catarrhines) as well as hominoids
(apes and humans), whereas cercopithecoids (Old World monkeys) are recorded from the latest Miocene onwards.
"The Reconstruction of Hominoid
Behavioral Evolution through Strategic Modelling," in Primate Models of Human Behavior, edited by Waren G.
This picture suggests the action of several, coordinated "forces" acting on the shape of a paradigmatic hominoid
For BR, the evolution of cultural transmission occurred in a hominoid
Rukwapithecus fleaglei is an early hominoid
represented by a mandible preserving several teeth.
Consider all of the members of the superfamily Hominoidea (hominoids
)--the group that includes all the apes that are living today and all of the tailless primates that have lived in the past.
Among human fossil species, the angle varies very little and attempts to discriminate among locomotors modes in hominoids
based on the curvature of the tibia condyle have been of limited success (Organ & Ward, 2006).
Ostertag et al., "A Novel Testis-binding Protein Gene Arose by Exon Shuffling in Hominoids
," Genome 17 (2007): 1129-38; F.
This configuration of sutures appears to be a normal variation in facial structure and part of the common heritage of hominoids
, or apes and humans, and is not confined to robust australopithecines, concludes Eckhardt in the July 23 NATURE.
The original aquatic ape theory, developed by Sir Alister Hardy and made public in 1960, posited that a population of early humans, or hominoids
, was isolated during tectonic upheaval in a flooded forest environment, similar to that of parts of the Amazon.
The Miocene period of 25 million to 10 million years ago was marked by the appearance of ape-like ancestors of modern apes and humans, known as hominoids
, in Africa, Asia and Europe.