Shaw et al., "Th17 cells expressing KIR3DL2+ and responsive to HLA-B27 homodimers
are increased in ankylosing spondylitis," Journal of Immunology, vol.
The molecular binding rules that follow from this scenario are that a and c do not couple with each other, but with b, and c may form the homodimer
cc (see Figure 2).
The second revised phytase, the 3-phytase B (PDB ID: 1QFX), initially corresponds to a homodimer
(Chains A and B) which, thanks to its crystallographic symmetry, generates a homotetramer from two dimers.
Activated JAK1/2 phosphorylate STAT3a, which forms homodimers
that translocate to the nucleus.
Bcl-2 and Bax regulate apoptosis by forming homodimers
or heterodimers of the TGF-AY family ligands bind to and activate a pair of receptors and then phosphorylate the intracellular R-SMADs.
These pro inflammatory cytokines are a group of homodimers
, each made of two 15 KD polypeptide chains joined together by disulfide bonds.
GPI-APs are typical raft-associated proteins and tend to form homodimers
. (3,4) GPI-APs can be released from the cell after cleavage by GPI-cleaving enzymes or GPIases.
FPP synthases have been identified from several insects and are typically active as homodimers
Structurally, the two cyclooxygenase enzymes, COX1 and COX-2, are homodimers
of two 70kDa subunits related by a C2 axis of symmetry.
ICER binds cAMP response element (CRE) as homodimers
and/or heterodimers with any member of the cAMP response element (CRE) binding protein/CRE modulator/activating factor 1 (CREB/CREM/ATF1) gene family [2-4].
Within the cell, S100 proteins, in the form of heterodimers or homodimers
, control the localization and activity of a variety of target proteins; however, the S100 proteins S100A8 and A9 are also secreted from cells as calprotectin, a heterodimeric proinflammatory cytokine .