Moreover it showed no homoplasies
for the tarsal scopula character.
A combined phylogenetic analysis of morphological characters and mitochondrial DNA sequencing data by our team confirmed the hypothesis that certain conchological characters (G-type clausilium apparatus, Gittenberger and Schilthuizen 1996) are actually homoplasies
and, [TABULAR DATA FOR TABLE 1 OMITTED] thus, do not contain any intergeneric phylogenetic information (Douris et al.
Evolutionary history of the fish genus Astyanax Baird & Girard (1854) (Actynopterigii, Characidae) in Mesoamerica reveals multiple morphological homoplasies
. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 8, 340.
Sequences were inspected for homoplasies
. Nucleotide sequences were translated to protein, and genetic distances were calculated in MEGA 3.0 (22) by using the Tajima-Nei (nucleotide) and Dayhoff (amino acid) algorithms.
On the anatomy and function of the cephalic structures in Phractura (Siluriformes: Amphiliidae), with comments on some striking homoplasies
occurring between the doumeins and some loricarioids catfishes.
The morphological similarities found in Cassiope and Harrimanella are thus likely symplesiomorphies or homoplasies
and not indicative of recent common ancestry.
[TABULAR DATA FOR TABLE 1 OMITTED] If feeding larvae could be lost and regained in some lineages, by convergent atavisms of many traits, then homoplasies
in feeding larval morphology should be common (Strathmann and Eernisse 1994), but such homoplasies
are not known for any starfish.
The variation in the SSTs conformed to the clonal model for bacterial population structure (28), and the maximum parsimony method generated a phylogenetic tree with no homoplasies
, i.e., the lack of independent occurrence of a polymorphism in more than one branch of the tree (Figure 1 A, 2).
This means that synapomorphies, plesiomorphies, autapomorphies, and homoplasies
These transition homoplasies
are widely recognized as phylogenetic "noise" and are routinely eliminated from evolutionary comparisons of divergent ([greater than] 10%) DNA sequences.
The roles of ontogenetic evolution in the origins of floral homoplasies