acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid cerebrospinal fluid levels: a study with and without probenecid administration of their relationship to the state of consciousness after head injury.
In the OAT we measure both homovanillic
acid (dopamine metabolite) and vanillylmandelic acid (norepinephrine metabolite).
For this reason, the urine catecholamine metabolites, vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and homovanillic
acid (HVA), are often used to aid in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma.
Cerebrospinal fluid homovanillic
acid is correlated to psychotic features in neurological patients with delirium.
Protective effect of hydroxytyrosol and its metabolite homovanillic
alcohol on H2O2 induced lipid peroxidation in renal tubular epithelial cells.
Recommended tumour surveillance protoco  Physical Abdominal Alpha- Urinary examination ultrasound fetoprotein catecholamines and VMA and HVA [beta]HCG 0-4 years 3-monthly 3-4-monthly 4-monthly 4-monthly 4-7 years 4-monthly 3-4-monthly 6-monthly 6-monthly > 7 years Biannually Annually Annually Annually Chest radiograph 0-4 years Annually 4-7 years Annually > 7 years Annually [beta]HCG = beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin; VMA = vanillylmandelic acid; HVA = homovanillic
5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid and homovanillic
acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in patients with Alzheimer's disease, depression and mild cognitive impairment.
High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, including dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic
acid (HVA), in the striatum, as previously described .
The linkbetween vitiligo and the activity of monoaminergic systems has been found based on the finding that levels of norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), normetanephrine (NMN), metanephrine (MN), homovanillic
acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) were significantly higher in patients with vitiligo compared to controls .
Elevation of catecholamine metabolite secretions, including urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), homovanillic
acid (HVA), and dopamine, occurs in as many as 90% of pediatric patients  but is generally not seen in adolescents and adults.
The concentration of dopamine metabolite, the homovanillic
acid (HVA) in LCR is reduced in depression, to an even greater extent than the concentration of 5-HIAA, to which it is actually linked.
In fact, in a study in patients with delusions of being harmed and erotomania, it was found that patients' homovanillic
acid levels and dopamine metabolites were higher than those in the normal population (9,10).