Hood, John Bell

Hood, John Bell,

1831–79, Confederate general in the American Civil War, b. Owingsville, Ky. He resigned from the army (Apr., 1861) and entered the Confederate service 1862. He fought in the Peninsular campaign and at the second battle of Bull Run (Aug., 1862) and was promoted to the rank of major general in October. As a division commander under James LongstreetLongstreet, James,
1821–1904, Confederate general in the American Civil War, b. Edgefield District, S.C. He graduated (1842) from West Point and served in the Mexican War, reaching the rank of major. At the outbreak of the Civil War he resigned from the U.S.
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, he distinguished himself at Antietam, Fredericksburg, and Gettysburg and at Chickamauga, where he won his lieutenant generalcy (Sept., 1863). In the Atlanta campaignAtlanta campaign,
May–Sept., 1864, of the U.S. Civil War. In the spring of 1864, Gen. W. T. Sherman concentrated the Union armies of G. H. Thomas, J. B. McPherson, and J. M. Schofield around Chattanooga.
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 of 1864 he fought under Joseph E. JohnstonJohnston, Joseph Eggleston,
1807–91, Confederate general, b. Prince Edward co., Va., grad. West Point, 1829. He served against the Seminole in Florida and with distinction under Winfield Scott in the Mexican War.
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 until Jefferson Davis, displeased with that general's retreat, made Hood commander. Hood, faring no better against General ShermanSherman, William Tecumseh,
1820–91, Union general in the American Civil War, b. Lancaster, Ohio. Sherman is said by many to be the greatest of the Civil War generals.
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, was obliged to abandon Atlanta on Sept. 1. To prevent a further Union advance Hood moved against Sherman's long line of communications. Sherman followed, but later, satisfied that George H. ThomasThomas, George Henry,
1816–70, Union general in the American Civil War, b. Southampton co., Va. He served in the Seminole War and in the Mexican War. Later he taught at West Point and served in Texas.
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 at Nashville could cope with Hood, returned to Atlanta and marched to the sea. Hood then began to advance through Tennessee. John M. SchofieldSchofield, John McAllister
, 1831–1906, Union general in the American Civil War, b. Gerry, N.Y. He taught at West Point (1855–60) and on the outbreak of the Civil War became chief of staff to Nathaniel Lyon in Missouri.
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 slowly withdrew before him, repulsing his attack in a bloody battle at Franklin (Nov. 30) before joining Thomas. In the battle of Nashville (Dec. 15–16), Thomas won the most complete victory of the war, virtually annihilating the Confederates. Hood resigned his command (Jan., 1865) and surrendered at Natchez, Miss., in May.

Bibliography

See his Advance and Retreat (1879, new ed. 1959, repr. 1969); S. F. Horn, The Army of Tennessee (1941, repr. 1959); biographies by R. O'Connor (1949, repr. 1959) and J. P. Dyer (1950).

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Hood, John Bell

(1831–79) soldier; born in Owingsville, Ky. A doctor's son, he graduated from West Point (1853) near the bottom of his class and served in California and Texas. Resigning to join the Confederate service, he commanded a brigade at 2nd Bull Run and Antietam (both 1862) and a division at Gettysburg, where he was seriously wounded. Wounded again at Chickamauga (1863), he recovered from the amputation of his right leg in time to succeed Joseph E. Johnston in command of the army facing Sherman before Atlanta. Promoted beyond his capabilities he was no match for Sherman. Forced out of Atlanta, he marched north while Sherman moved east to the sea; his ill-advised attacks at Franklin and Nashville, Tenn. (1864), shattered his army. Hood went into business in New Orleans after the war, but his ventures were unsuccessful. He died in poverty, the victim, along with some of his large family, of a yellow fever epidemic.
The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography, by John S. Bowman. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1995. Reproduced with permission.