hookworm

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hookworm,

any of a number of bloodsucking nematodes in the phylum NematodaNematoda
, phylum consisting of about 12,000 known species, and many more predicted species, of worms (commonly known as roundworms or threadworms). Nematodes live in the soil and other terrestrial habitats as well as in freshwater and marine environments; some live on the deep
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, order Strongiloidae that live as parasites in humans and other mammals and attach themselves to the host's intestines by means of hooks. Hookworm infection in humans is caused by infestation with Ancylostoma duodenale (the European species) or with Necator americanus (the American species). It is found in tropical and subtropical climates, especially where the inhabitants do not wear shoes or stockings and where the soil is contaminated by human excrement. The larva of the hookworm, living in moist soil or mud, easily penetrates the exposed skin, usually the sole of the foot, and is then carried by the blood to the lungs. An early sign of hookworm infestation is a dermatitis at the site of entry, known as ground itch. As the larva passes through the lungs, it causes episodes of coughing with bloody sputum. Raised with the mucus into the mouth, the larva is then swallowed. It may also be swallowed with polluted drinking water or with unclean vegetables eaten raw. By means of its hooks the larva attaches itself to the upper portion of the small intestine, where it nourishes itself on the blood of its host. The larva matures and the female produces eggs, as many as 30,000 per day, that are passed from the intestine with the feces, usually to contaminate the soil still further. The drain on the blood of the host results in anemia. This, together with the resulting abdominal pain and diarrhea, causes general debility. Hookworm is treated with drugs, notably tetrachloroethylene, that loosen and destroy the parasite, as well as with specifics for the anemia and abdominal symptoms. Incidence of this disease, which was once seriously prevalent, has been much reduced by improved sanitation and the wearing of shoes.
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hookworm

[′hu̇k‚wərm]
(invertebrate zoology)
The common name for parasitic roundworms composing the family Ancylostomidae.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

hookworm

any parasitic blood-sucking nematode worm of the family Ancylostomatidae, esp Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus, both of which cause disease. They have hooked mouthparts and enter their hosts by boring through the skin
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The essential prophylactic measures to be adopted to rescue the human beings from the disease and shielding dogs from hookworm infection.
High prevalence of Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworm infections in humans, Cambodia, 2012.
Additionally, while stool DR remains a commonly used diagnostic modality for hookworm infection, incidence of false negatives on a single stool sample is high, especially in early infection, and thus a negative stool DR cannot be relied on completely.3,9 Furthermore, higher summer temperatures, moisture and soil characteristics10 in most of Punjab and neighboring agricultural areas of the country provide favorable weather for survival and transmission of hookworms.
Carroll SM, Grove D (1984b) Parasitological, hematologic, and immunologic responses in acute and chronic infections in dogs with Ancylostoma ceylanicum: A model of human hookworm infection. J.
Hookworm infection was seen only in six children, of which 2 were in the study group and 4 in the control group.
Jabbar, "Hookworm infection in a rural community in South India and its association with haemoglobin levels," Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol.
Several studies have also confirmed a significant association between wealth index and hookworm infection. A multi-country study revealed that the prevalence of hookworm is negatively associated with wealth index [19].
When prescribed as a single dose for treating hookworm infection, it is better than mebendazole.
All Trichuris infections, 97% of hookworm infections, and 78% of Ascaris infections were of light intensity.
To the Editor: Human hookworm infections are commonly caused by 2 anthroponotic species, Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale.
Jagrani said that anaemia is also common in pregnancy, frequently caused by a combination of low iron intakes and poor absorption, exacerbated by malaria and hookworm infections. In some poor communities in Pakistan 80 to 90 percent of pregnant women may be anaemic, while nationally more than 50 percent of women may be affected, she said.