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in Soviet criminal law, intentional acts that grossly violate public order and signify an obvious disrespect for society.
Liability for hooliganism is established by Article 206 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR, the corresponding articles in the criminal codes of the other Union republics, and the edict of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of July 26, 1966, On Increasing the Liability for Hooliganism. The degree of the threat that a given act of hooliganism poses to society is determined by considering the form of the criminal act, the accompanying circumstances, and the personality of the violator.
The law covers several types of hooliganism. Petty hooliganism includes obscene swearing in public places, offensive molestation of citizens, and similar acts that disturb public order and the peace. It is regarded as an administrative offense and is punishable by administrative measures, such as a fine of ten to 50 rubles, detention for ten to 15 days, or correctional labor, without deprivation of freedom, for one to two months with the deduction of 20 percent of the offender’s wages. Acts of hooliganism that are not petty but are committed without the aggravating circumstances indicated in Parts 2 and 3 of Article 206 of the RSFSR Criminal Code are punishable by deprivation of freedom for up to one year, correctional labor without deprivation of freedom for the same term, or a fine of 30 to 50 rubles (Criminal Code of the RSFSR, art. 206, part 1).
The same acts may be regarded as malicious hooliganism if they are distinguished by particular cynicism or impudence, if they are committed by a person previously convicted of hooliganism, or if they involve resistance to a representative of authority, to a representative of society fulfilling obligations for the protection of public order, or to other citizens attempting to stop the acts of hooliganism. Malicious hooliganism is punishable by deprivation of freedom for one to five years. Acts of hooliganism committed with the use or attempted use of firearms, knives and other types of blades, brass knuckles, or other objects specially adapted for rendering bodily injury are regarded as especially malicious hooliganism and are punishable by deprivation of freedom for three to seven years. Hooliganism is recognized as malicious or especially malicious if at least one of the aggravating circumstances corresponding to the given category is present. These types of hooliganism are classified as serious crimes (Criminal Code of the RSFSR, art. 7–1).
Liability for hooliganism attaches from age 16, and liability for malicious and especially malicious hooliganism, from age 14. Hooliganism, which in the overwhelming majority of cases is committed as a result of drunkenness, is a dangerous crime that infringes on public order and the peace of citizens. It is often associated with other serious crimes and with threats to people’s life and health.
N. I. ZAGORODNIKOV