Edward Hopper

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Hopper, Edward,

1882–1967, American painter and engraver, b. Nyack, N.Y., studied in New York City with Robert HenriHenri, Robert
, 1865–1929, American painter and teacher, b. Cincinnati as Robert Henry Cozad. He studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. In 1888 he went to Paris, where he worked at Julian's and the Beaux-Arts until, dissatisfied with the schools, he set up
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. Hopper lived in France for a year but was little influenced by the artistic currents there. His early paintings had slight success; he gained a reputation, however, through his etchings, which remain popular. The first one-man show of his paintings was held in 1920. Hopper excelled in creating realistic pictures of clear-cut, sunlit streets and houses, often without figures. In his paintings there is a frequent atmosphere of loneliness, an almost menacing starkness, and a clear sense of time of day or night. His work in oil and watercolor is slowly and carefully painted, with light and shade used for pattern rather than for modeling. Hopper is represented in many leading American museums. Early Sunday Morning (1930; Whitney Museum, N.Y.C.) and Nighthawks (1942; Art Institute of Chicago) are characteristic oils.

Bibliography

See catalogue raisonné ed. by G. Levin (1995); catalog by L. Goodrich (1971); biographies by R. Hobbs (1987) and G. Levin (1995, repr. 2007); studies by L. Goodrich (1971), G. Levin (1981, repr. 1986), S. Wagstaff et al. (2004), C. Troyen et al. (2007), and O. Westheider and M. Philipp, ed. (2d ed., 2011).

Hopper, Edward

(1882–1967) painter; born in Nyack, N.Y. He studied under Robert Henri (1900–06) and traveled in Europe (1906–10), but his etchings, watercolors, and oils over the next 50 years would reflect little of the current art trends. He supported himself as a commercial illustrator until recognition in the mid-1920s. His vision of realism, using moody light and buildings, created a world of human isolation, as in such famous paintings as Early Sunday Morning (1930) and Night Hawks (1942).