Horatio Nelson


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Nelson, Horatio

 

Born Sept. 29, 1758, in Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk; died Oct. 21, 1805, near Cape Trafalgar, Spain. English naval commander; baron of the Nile (1798); viscount (1801); vice admiral (1801). Son of a clergyman.

Nelson entered the navy at the age of 12 and passed the examination for the rank of lieutenant in 1777. He first commanded a brig and a frigate, and in 1793 he was given command of a ship of the line in Admiral S. Hood’s squadron, which operated in the Mediterranean against France. Nelson distinguished himself through personal bravery. He lost his right eye in July 1794 in combat at Calvi (Corsica) and his right arm in 1797 in combat at Santa Cruz (Tenerife Island). In February 1797 he fought in the battle of St. Vincent under Admiral J. Jervis and boarded two Spanish ships, for which he was promoted to rear admiral. In 1798, Nelson commanded a squadron that was sent to the Mediterranean to oppose France’s Egyptian Expedition of 1798–1801. Although he could not prevent the landing of the French troops in Alexandria, Nelson routed the French fleet on Aug. 1–2, 1798, at Aboukir, thereby cutting off Napoleon Bonaparte’s army in Egypt. Nelson was in Naples from 1798 to 1800; in 1799 he drove the French out of Naples and restored Ferdinand IV to the throne of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies; Ferdinand made him duke of Bronte. At this time Nelson sullied his name by meting out brutal reprisals against French prisoners and Italian republicans. In 1801 he was second-in-command in H. Parker’s squadron in action in the Baltic Sea and in the bombing of Copenhagen; he subsequently commanded a squadron in the English Channel. In 1803–05 he was commander of a squadron in the Mediterranean in action against France and Spain. Nelson blocked the Franco-Spanish fleet at Cádiz in September 1805 and crushed it on October 21 in the battle of Trafalgar of 1805, in which he was fatally wounded. He was buried in London on Jan. 9, 1806.

As a naval commander, Nelson was aggressive and resolute. He abandoned the stereotyped methods of linear tactics and applied the tactics of maneuver. His naval leadership was an important element in the growth of Great Britain’s naval power and in the struggle of the English bourgeoisie for colonial domination.

REFERENCES

Butakov, A. “Nel’son po poslednim ego biografiiam.” Morskoi sbornik, 1899, nos. 2, 3.
“Admiral lord Nel’son kak flotovodets.” Ibid., 1890, no. 11. (Translated from English.)
“Nel’son i ego kapitany.” Ibid., 1916, nos. 8–12; 1917, nos. 1–2. (Translated from English.)
Mahan, A. The Life of Nelson, the Embodiment of the Sea Power of Great Britain. London, 1898.

B. I. ZVEREV

References in periodicals archive ?
Horatio Nelson was out of favour with punters after his failure on his reappearance in the 2000 Guineas, but he never promised to be a Guineas horse and the Epsom Derby was always the main aim in the first half of the season.
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Marcus Tregoning's charge, sent off at 9-2, hit the front inside the final furlong and kept on well to hold Horatio Nelson by a neck.
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The theme is Heroes and Heroines and for that day a new poem will be performed to mark the 200th anniversary of the great British sea faring hero, Admiral Horatio Nelson, a man who the people of Birmingham honoured by raising funds for a statue.
Carolan, a maritime historian, provides a concise biography of English Rear Admiral Horatio Nelson, particularly his role in the Battle of Trafalgar during the Napoleonic Wars.
KIEREN FALLON has scotched suggestions he was unhappy with the decision to allow the ill-fated Horatio Nelson to take his chance in Saturday's Derby.
His 25-1 shot Dylan Thomas took third, just a head behind the winner, but second-favourite Horatio Nelson broke a front leg on the straight and had to be put down.
The French-trained duo will face stiff opposition from the likes of the Kieren Fallon-ridden Horatio Nelson and Septimus from Aidan O'Brien's yard, who also run Dylan Thomas and Mountain, as well as 2000 Guineas runner-up Sir Percy and Chester Vase winner Papal Bull.
The son of Montjeu, who was supplemented for the race at a cost of pounds 75,000, has been ridden by Kieren Fallon in all his starts to date but with the former champion opting to partner Horatio Nelson for Aidan O'Brien, the mount became available.
HORATIO NELSON has crashed in price for the Derby following mounting speculation that Kieren Fallon will partner the colt on Saturday.
Many thought trainer Marcus Tregoning's colt was lucky to hold off Horatio Nelson at the finish of last year's Dewhurst Stakes.