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Na Dialetica do esclarecimento (1985), escrita por Adorno e Horkheimer, o processo de desenvolvimento da razao na sociedade burguesa primou pela autopreservacao da vida e pela conciliacao entre pensamento e realidade e pela identificacao entre o sujeito e o mundo.
Como diz o autor, "Desde o inicio, o mal-estar moral na ordem burguesa foi um motivo essencial para a teoria critica da sociedade [...]", sobretudo para Horkheimer e Adorno que refletiram sistematicamente sobre a vida danificada (Gruschka, 2014, p.
Concretamente, Max Horkheimer senala que antes regia una razon englobante que daba respuestas a las grandes interrogantes humanas de caracter no meramente parcial sino espiritual; ahora lo que predomina es una razon mermada que no abarca toda la complejidad humana.
Horkheimer said that, on the contrary, it was an independent and highly important variable.
The various writings of Max Horkheimer indicate that on the one hand he maintained a deep animosity for what he surmised was the elitist thought of Friedrich Nietzsche, even once calling him in his Notizen the "philosophet of the ruling class." On the other hand, he affirmed Nietzsche's insights into man's nihilistic condition in a godless world, and thinks that even Nietzsche's concept of the iibermensch can make a positive contribution to the emancipation of the proletariat.
A intencao de Horkheimer ao assumir a direcao do Instituto era torna-lo interdisciplinar, tendo, para tanto, reunido pesquisadores de diversas areas do conhecimento, tais como Erich Fromm na psicanalise, Herbert Marcuse na filosofia, Leo Lowenthal e Theodor Adorno nas artes, Henryk Grossmann e Friedrich Pollock na economia, dentre outros (NOBRE, 2004).
Thus, he has inspired art and artists, from Thomas Mann and Robert Musil to Rilke and Hermann Hesse, from Strauss' Thus Spoke Zarathustra and Mahler's Third Symphony to contemporary Hungarian director Bela Tarr's The Turin Horse; he has influenced philosophy, from Martin Heidegger and the early thinkers of the Frankfurt School (Adorno and Horkheimer) and existentialism, to the radical French postmodern philosophers of the second half of the 20th century (Foucault, Deleuze, Derrida); and, though to a considerably lesser degree, after being rehabilitated by Princeton University's Walter Kaufmann in the 1950s, Nietzsche has also gained some repute in American philosophical academia.