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person held by another as a guarantee that certain actions or promises will or will not be carried out. During periods of internal turmoil, insurgents often seize hostages; recent examples include seizures of Americans and other foreigners by militants in Iran (1979–81) and Lebanon (1980s). Military forces often take hostages among civilians in an occupied country, in order to ensure the delivery of requisitions, to discourage hostile acts, or to take reprisals for hostile acts committed by unknown persons. In World War II, thousands of hostages were executed throughout Europe by the German authorities in an attempt to crush resistance movements. The Geneva Convention of 1949 forbade entirely the taking of civilian hostages. Criminals, especially when confronted by police, sometimes take hostages as "human shields" or as bargaining assets. In 1998 it was revealed that Israel was holding Lebanese hostages solely for use in prisoner exchanges or other deals with Lebanese guerrillas; their detainment was condoned by Israel's supreme court.

Ancient military custom regulated the behavior and treatment of hostages; originally a hostage was a person who had been delivered by one authority to another as a token of good faith, and was generally treated as an honored guest. However, he might be imprisoned or even executed if the agreement guaranteed by his person was broken. The code of honor was often very strictly observed in feudal times; thus, during the Hundred Years War, when the hostages sent to England in exchange for the release of John IIJohn II
(John the Good), 1319–64, king of France (1350–64), son and successor of King Philip VI. An inept ruler, he began his reign by executing the constable of France (whose office he gave to his favorite, Charles de La Cerda) and by appointing dishonest and
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 of France escaped, King John felt bound to return to captivity in England. Until the 18th cent., hostages were often exchanged when treaties were concluded.


Dreaming about being a hostage suggests that you may experience feelings of victimization or entrapment. This can be indicative of a situation in daily life, such as an oppressive and unsatisfactory relationship or financial difficulties. The dream suggests that you may experience feelings of powerlessness and cannot see you way out of a difficult situation. Because a hostage is taken against his will, you may be feeling as though you have been trapped by another or by circumstances. Also, the hostage situation in your dream may represent a part of your personality that is not being expressed. It could be your creativity, intellect, or inner freedom. The purpose of this dream may be to make you more aware of the limiting conditions in your life. Additionally, the dream may trigger your imagination and problem-solving abilities enabling you to see new possibilities.
References in periodicals archive ?
During the shooting rampage, the hostage-taker grabbed Hong Kong Chinese tour guide Masa Tse Ting-chunn, 31, and handcuffed him to the door of the tourist bus.
The police identified the hostage-taker as Akio Kaneko from Kani, Gifu Prefecture and described his occupation as printer.
Then there will be moments when the hostage-taker appears to be being reasonable and when they feel they can relax more.
During the standoff mayor Alfred Lehmann said the hostage-taker wanted them to "reverse a decision" although it not clear what decision he meant.
Tan said that heavily armed police had surrounded the two-storey bungalow which houses the kindergarten and were trying to coax the hostage-taker to surrender and free the children.
Mendoza's hijacking, led to a 10-hour stand-off with the law enforcers that ended with the killing of the hostages as well as the hostage-taker.
The hostage-taker was shot, apparently in the shoulder, as the bus was stormed, police spokesman Christian Matzdorf said.
Police stormed a condominium in Fukuoka on Thursday night, rescuing unhurt a man who had been taken hostage by his former co-worker in the morning, and detaining the hostage-taker.
Despite that, the IIRC said that all the eight hostages were killed by the hostage-taker, Rolando Mendoza.
Police commandos stormed a tourist bus in Manila with 15 Chinese from Hong Kong taken hostage inside Monday after a half-day standoff, ending a shoot-out that left the hostage-taker and eight captives dead, police and local Red Cross officials said.
THE only hostage-taker captured, Nur-Pashi Kulayev, claimed the raid was ordered by rebel boss Aslan Maskhadov to "provoke war in the Caucasus.
n Ruslan Aushev, a former president of Ingushetia region, holds talks with hostage-taker in school gym.