hostage

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hostage,

person held by another as a guarantee that certain actions or promises will or will not be carried out. During periods of internal turmoil, insurgents often seize hostages; recent examples include seizures of Americans and other foreigners by militants in Iran (1979–81) and Lebanon (1980s). Military forces often take hostages among civilians in an occupied country, in order to ensure the delivery of requisitions, to discourage hostile acts, or to take reprisals for hostile acts committed by unknown persons. In World War II, thousands of hostages were executed throughout Europe by the German authorities in an attempt to crush resistance movements. The Geneva Convention of 1949 forbade entirely the taking of civilian hostages. Criminals, especially when confronted by police, sometimes take hostages as "human shields" or as bargaining assets. In 1998 it was revealed that Israel was holding Lebanese hostages solely for use in prisoner exchanges or other deals with Lebanese guerrillas; their detainment was condoned by Israel's supreme court.

Ancient military custom regulated the behavior and treatment of hostages; originally a hostage was a person who had been delivered by one authority to another as a token of good faith, and was generally treated as an honored guest. However, he might be imprisoned or even executed if the agreement guaranteed by his person was broken. The code of honor was often very strictly observed in feudal times; thus, during the Hundred Years War, when the hostages sent to England in exchange for the release of John IIJohn II
(John the Good), 1319–64, king of France (1350–64), son and successor of King Philip VI. An inept ruler, he began his reign by executing the constable of France (whose office he gave to his favorite, Charles de La Cerda) and by appointing dishonest and
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 of France escaped, King John felt bound to return to captivity in England. Until the 18th cent., hostages were often exchanged when treaties were concluded.

Hostage

(dreams)
Dreaming about being a hostage suggests that you may experience feelings of victimization or entrapment. This can be indicative of a situation in daily life, such as an oppressive and unsatisfactory relationship or financial difficulties. The dream suggests that you may experience feelings of powerlessness and cannot see you way out of a difficult situation. Because a hostage is taken against his will, you may be feeling as though you have been trapped by another or by circumstances. Also, the hostage situation in your dream may represent a part of your personality that is not being expressed. It could be your creativity, intellect, or inner freedom. The purpose of this dream may be to make you more aware of the limiting conditions in your life. Additionally, the dream may trigger your imagination and problem-solving abilities enabling you to see new possibilities.
References in periodicals archive ?
The corner stone of training in preventing kidnapping and hostage-taking is focused to decrease cases, and to build capacity with the aim of achieving the safe release of hostages, said Adam Dolnik, independent consultant on terrorism, hostage negotiation, kidnap response, and training.
The Radisson attack follows a nearly 24-hour siege and hostage-taking at another hotel in August in the central Malian town of Sevare in which five UN workers were killed, along with four soldiers and four attackers.
Pirate networks continue to rely on kidnapping and hostage-taking.
Aquino reportedly told Li that an investigation continues into the hostage-taking, according to the Chinese report.
That was less a hostage-taking than a straight-up revenge thing," Ramsey said.
AQIM focuses more on networks of crime, smuggling, arm trafficking and hostage-taking, he added, underlining that this modus operandi is more criminal than political.
The Iraqi government stated on Tuesday it would punish security officials in the Baghdad district where Al-Qaeda gunmenluanched a deadly hostage-taking at a church that left scores of worshippers dead.
The papers address general tactical issues and current trends in political hostage-taking and review experiences with negotiations in Lebanon, the Beslan school hostage crisis in North Ossetia, and a Kashmiri separatist hijacking of an Indian airliner.
Tragic scene: People gather at the cemetery in the Russian town of Beslan to mourn the 335 victims, mostly children, of the hostage-taking at School No.
There is no justification for hostage-taking and we call upon those people who are holding the other Iraqi and British hostages to release them immediately.
He said: "I think British people understand why no British government makes conces-sions in return for hostage-taking.