House of York
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York, house of,royal house of England, deriving its name from the creation of Edmund of Langley, fifth son of Edward III, as duke of York in 1385. The claims to the throne of Edmund's grandson, Richard, duke of York, in opposition to Henry VI of the house of Lancaster (see Lancaster, house ofLancaster, house of
, royal family of England. The line was founded by the second son of Henry III, Edmund Crouchback, 1245–96, who was created earl of Lancaster in 1267.
..... Click the link for more information. ), resulted in the Wars of the Roses (see Roses, Wars of theRoses, Wars of the,
traditional name given to the intermittent struggle (1455–85) for the throne of England between the noble houses of York (whose badge was a white rose) and Lancaster (later associated with the red rose).
About the middle of the 15th cent.
..... Click the link for more information. ), so called because the badge of the house of York was a white rose, and a red rose was later attributed to the house of Lancaster. Richard's claim to the throne came not only from direct male descent from Edmund, but also through his mother Anne Mortimer, great-granddaughter of Lionel, duke of Clarence, who was the third son of Edward III. The royal members of the house of York were Edward IVEdward IV,
1442–83, king of England (1461–70, 1471–83), son of Richard, duke of York. He succeeded to the leadership of the Yorkist party (see Roses, Wars of the) after the death of his father in Wakefield in 1460.
..... Click the link for more information. , Edward VEdward V,
1470–83?, king of England (1483), elder son of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville. His father's death (1483) left the boy king the pawn of the conflicting ambitions of his paternal uncle, the duke of Gloucester (later Richard III) and his maternal uncle, Earl
..... Click the link for more information. , and Richard IIIRichard III,
1452–85, king of England (1483–85), younger brother of Edward IV. Created duke of Gloucester at Edward's coronation (1461), he served his brother faithfully during Edward's lifetime—fighting at Barnet and Tewkesbury and later invading Scotland.
..... Click the link for more information. . The marriage of the Lancastrian Henry VII to Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Edward IV, united the houses of York and Lancaster. Henry was the first of the Tudor kings.
York, House of
a dynasty of British kings (1461–85), a branch of the Plantagenets. It traces its origin to the fifth son of Edward III, Edmund, the duke of York. The first representative of the House of York on the British throne was Edward IV, who deposed Henry VI (a scion of another branch of the Plantagenets, the Lancasters) during the Wars of the Roses. His son, young Edward V, was deposed in 1483 by his uncle Richard III and was murdered in the Tower of London. After the defeat of Richard III in the battle with Henry Tudor at Bosworth (1485), the throne passed to the Tudors, remote kin of the Lancasters.