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see artilleryartillery,
originally meant any large weaponry (including such ancient engines of war as catapults and battering rams) or war material, but later applied only to heavy firearms as opposed to small arms.
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a type of artillery gun for directing plunging fire at covered targets. Howitzers are part of troop artillery (field artillery in foreign armies). They have a caliber of 100 mm or more, a relatively short barrel (from 15 to 30 calibers), a multisection charge, a range of fire of up to 17 km, and a relatively high rate of fire—a round every other minute or every minute to six rounds per minute depending on the caliber. Most modern howitzers are self-propelled; the old systems use mechanical traction.

The first howitzers were built in Europe in the 15th century (Italy and Germany) and were used for firing stone-filled canisters. In the second half of the 16th century howitzers began firing explosive shells. In Russia the first howitzers were built in the middle of the 16th century. They were called gakovnitsy, gaufnitsy, and gafunitsy. In the 1760’s Russia developed longer howitzers, which were named unicorns. The change from smoothbore to rifled guns in the 1860’s led to the building of rifled howitzers. The greater use of field fortifications in the wars in the second half of the 19th century increased the need for howitzers. They were widely used in all armies in the two world wars. During the Great Patriotic War (1941-45) the highest performance indexes were displayed by the Soviet 122-, 152-, and 203-mm howitzers.


Kirillov-Gubetskoi, I. M. Sovremennaia artilleriia, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1933.
Istoriia otechestvennoi artillerii, vol. 1, books 1-3; vol. 2, book 4; vol. 3, books 7-8. Moscow-Leningrad, 1959-66.



A complete projectile-firing weapon with a bore diameter greater than 30 millimeters, and a length shorter than a gun of the same caliber; maximum angle of velocity is about 65°; used to deliver curved fire with projectiles of lower muzzle velocities than those from the gun.
References in periodicals archive ?
In May 2016 the Egyptian Ministry of Defence revealed that it had fielded both truck mounted PJSC D-30122mm and M-46130mm family howitzers.
Ankara [Turkey], August 6 ( ANI ): Turkey has sent a military convoy with five howitzers to the border with Syria, the state-run Anadolu news agency reported.
The Field Artillery Dragoons from 2CR conducted sling load operations with their M777 Howitzers in order to train rigging and re-rigging of the howitzer for an air assault (elevator drills).
BAE Systems is partnering with Indian private sector defense company Mahindra Defence Systems for the assembly of 120 ultralight howitzers, while the remaining 25 guns will be supplied within the next three years.
Under the proposal, Mahindra will run an assembly, integration and testing ( AIT) facility for the 145 Howitzers, BAE said in a statement on Wednesday India is trying to fill a vital gap in its range of artillery weapons after years of delay in ordering new equipment.
Var of artillery fires being made by the howitzers belong to the Turkish Armed Forces
The M198 Howitzers will be of the most use to the Army.
And, secondly, in a reasonably mobile battle once the enemy has been largely neutralized, the helicopter will have to return to lift the howitzers (a battery of six) to a new location - all time-consuming and complicated manoeuvres.
Howitzer components wear out under the best of circumstances.
The contract for 145 BAE Land Systems howitzers with laser inertial artillery pointing systems, spare parts and support and test equipment is expected to be worth $885 million, the DSCA statement said.
It has been suggested that the presence of huge magnetic fields in sun-spots results in their acting as howitzers to pour forth charged particles of matter into the interplanetary realm.
Abu Dhabi The orderbook of UK-based BAE Systems, a global defence, security and aerospace company, for lightweight 155mm howitzers is about $1.