human papillomavirus

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human papillomavirus

(HPV), any of a family of more than 60 viruses that cause various growths, including plantar wartswart,
circumscribed outgrowth of the skin caused by a filterable virus that is readily transmitted. Warts may appear anywhere on the skin but are most common on the hands.
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 and genital warts, a sexually transmitted diseasesexually transmitted disease
(STD) or venereal disease,
term for infections acquired mainly through sexual contact. Five diseases were traditionally known as venereal diseases: gonorrhea, syphilis, and the less common granuloma inguinale, lymphogranuloma venereum, and
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. Detectable warts can be or removed, usually by chemicals, freezing, or laser, but often recur. Intralesional alpha interferon has been effective in the treatment of genital warts. Genital warts, sometimes called condylomata acuminata, are soft and often occur in clusters. They can occur internally or externally, but even in the absence of warts the virus may be present and transmittable. Problems can result from untreated warts, which can grow quite large, or, in rare cases, from infection of an infant during delivery. In addition, certain strains of HPV are associated with cancercancer,
in medicine, common term for neoplasms, or tumors, that are malignant. Like benign tumors, malignant tumors do not respond to body mechanisms that limit cell growth.
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 of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, and anus, and HPV 16 has been shown to be associated with some forms of Kaposi's sarcoma (see AIDSAIDS
or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,
fatal disease caused by a rapidly mutating retrovirus that attacks the immune system and leaves the victim vulnerable to infections, malignancies, and neurological disorders. It was first recognized as a disease in 1981.
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) and throat cancer. A vaccine approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2006 can protect a woman against those strains that cause most cases of cervical cancer and genital warts, and a study has shown it may also protect against related throat cancers; HPV vaccination is now recommended for both girls and boys beginning at 11 to 12 years of age.

human papillomavirus

[¦yü·mən ‚pap·ə′lō·mə ‚vī·rəs]
(medicine)
One of a family of more than 100 different viruses, most commonly spread via sexual contact, that cause warts on the hands and feet and in the genital area; several types are associated with premalignant and malignant changes in the cervix. Abbreviated HPV.
References in periodicals archive ?
Many have predicted a HPV DNA test capable of genotyping and quantifying HPV DNA will one day supplant the Pap smear as the primary screening test for cervical cancer.
A benefit of using the HPV DNA test is that it is objective, with high reproducibility and easy automation, allowing its use in countries without the infrastructure needed for Pap testing and without depending on subjective interpretation," the document states.
Product Name: Digene Hybrid Capture 2 High-Risk HPV DNA Test
The use of the Hybrid Capture(R) High-Risk HPV DNA Test as a stand-alone screen for cervical cancer has not been approved by the U.
The HPV DNA test, like the Pap test, is performed by collecting cells from the cervix and then sending them to a laboratory for analysis.
New testing methods for human papilloma virus (HPV), such as the Digene Hybrid Capture 2 HPV DNA Test ([hc.
In international cross-sectional studies that examined both cytology (Pap testing) and the HPV DNA test, the sensitivity of a single Pap test for identifying CIN 2 or 3 (cervical disease) or cancer ranged from 33 percent to 94 percent, (while) adding the HPV DNA test to conventional cytology increased the sensitivity to 87 percent to 100 percent," the document states.
2) The new standard of care, now stated in both the 2001 Consensus Guidelines recently published in JAMA (April 24, 2002) and the ESIDOG guidelines (European Society for Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynaecology), is to test borderline or equivocal Pap smears with an HPV DNA test (triage) to rule out approximately 50 percent of tests that are negative.
The TrovaGene HPV DNA test involves isolation of DNA from urine and specific PCR amplification of the HPV E1 region to detect the presence of high-risk HPV types.
HiFi DNA Tech says while the FDA's legal department insists on regulating HPV testing as a cancer test, as promulgated in all its court documents, its scientific arm has re-emphasized that the only FDA-approved "HC2 High-Risk HPV DNA Test is a laboratory test used to show the presence or absence of the genetic (DNA) material from the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), in cells from a woman's cervix.
11) Because persistent HPV infections cause nearly all cervical cancer, a negative HPV DNA test result helps rule out possible cervical cancer development within the next few years.
A negative result of a sensitive HPV DNA test indicates an extremely low risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cancer, which suggests that such testing is useful for "triage of equivocal cytologic abnormalities," and, perhaps eventually, for general screening, the investigators said.