Huang Tsung-Hsi

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Huang Tsung-Hsi


Born Sept. 24, 1610; died Aug. 12, 1695. Chinese scholar.

The son of a high court official, Huang Tsung-hsi fought against the Manchu invaders. After 1649 he devoted himself to scholarly pursuits and wrote several works in philosophy, history, literature, and mathematics. His Treatise on the State (1662) was a critique of absolute monarchy. Huang regarded as intolerable the emperor’s treatment of the state and the people as his own personal property; laws, according to Huang, were to meet the interests of the state and the people. He was the first Chinese author of historical studies of Chinese thought, such as The Philosophical Schools of the Sung and Yüan Epochs and The Works of the Confucians in the Ming Epoch.

Huang’s ideas played a role in the Chinese bourgeois-reformist movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.


Balazs, E. Political Theory and Administrative Reality in Traditional China. London, 1965. Pages 17–29.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.