Hudson Bay


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Hudson Bay,

inland sea of North America, c.475,000 sq mi (1,230,000 sq km), c.850 mi (1,370 km) long and c.650 mi (1,050 km) wide, E central Canada. Hudson Bay and James Bay (its southern extension) and all their islands border Nunavut Territory, Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec. Hudson Strait (c.450 mi/720 km long) connects Hudson Bay with the Atlantic Ocean, and Foxe Channel leads to the Arctic Ocean. Mansel, Coats, and Southampton islands are at the northern end of the bay. Hudson Bay occupies the southernmost portion of the Hudson Bay Lowlands, a depression in the Canadian ShieldCanadian Shield
or Laurentian Plateau
, U-shaped region of ancient rock, the nucleus of North America, stretching N from the Great Lakes to the Arctic Ocean. Covering more than half of Canada, it also includes most of Greenland and extends into the United States as the
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 formed during the Pleistocene epoch by the weight of the continental ice sheet. As the ice retreated, the region was flooded by the sea, and sediments were deposited in it. With the burden of ice removed, the floor of the lowlands has been slowly rising and the bay is gradually becoming shallower. The western shores are generally low and marshy and covered by tundra, while the east coast is barren and rocky, with the Ottawa and Belcher island groups offshore. Many rivers, including the Churchill and Nelson, drain into the bay. Hudson Bay moderates the local climate; it is ice-free and open to navigation from mid-July to October. The bay was explored and named (1610) by Henry Hudson in his search for the Northwest Passage. The surrounding region was a rich source of furs, and France and England struggled for its possession until 1713, when France ceded its claim by the Peace of Utrecht. Hudson's Bay Company set up many trading posts there, especially at river mouths; some of the posts have operated continuously since 1670. The Hudson Bay Railway (opened 1929) links the prairie provinces with Churchill, Man., a port for oceangoing freighters.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Hudson Bay

 

an inland sea of the Arctic Ocean, which juts from the north deep into Canada. Linked by Hudson Strait to the Atlantic Ocean in the east, by a system of Canadian straits to the Arctic Ocean in the north. Area, 819,000 sq km. Average depth, 112 m; maximum depth, 301 m. Average volume, 92,000 cu km. The climate is arctic. The average temperature of the air in January is from −22‰ to −31‰ C, and in July from 5‰ C in the north to 15‰ C in the south. The currents form a cyclonic cycle. The temperature of the water in winter is below 0‰ C. In August it is from 3‰ C in the north to 9‰ C in the south. A salinity of 23–28.5 parts per thousand (‰) increases in the northwest to 29–30.5‰. From October through July the bay is covered with ice. Tides are semidiurnal, and their height reaches 7.9 m. In the deepwater layer the temperature of the water is from −1.8‰ to −2.2‰ C, and salinity is 32.5–33.3‰. Cod, herring, and flounder are caught, and there is seal hunting. The chief ports are Churchill and Port Nelson. The bay was discovered in 1610 by the English navigator H. Hudson.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Hudson Bay

an inland sea in NE Canada: linked with the Atlantic by Hudson Strait; the S extension forms James Bay; discovered in 1610 by Henry Hudson. Area (excluding James Bay): 647 500 sq. km (250 000 sq. miles)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Knight sailed off to find his fortune (despite being almost 80 years old) and soon after disappeared with two ships and all of his men into the largely uncharted waters of northern Hudson Bay. It was later determined that he and his men were forced to winter on Marble Island, between Rankin and Chesterfield Inlet, and that the entire party perished there.
The greatest increase in sea surface temperature in the Canadian Arctic is predicted to occur in southeastern Hudson Bay and James Bay (Joly et al., 2011; Castro de la Guardia et al., 2013).
Rockwell and his research partner, Linda Gormezano, computed the energy required to offset any increased starvation and then determined the caloric value of snow geese, their eggs, and caribou that live near the coast of western Hudson Bay. They found that there likely are more than enough calories available on land to feed hungry polar bears during the lengthening ice-free seasons.
According to the Hudson Bay annual report, off-price retail is growing much faster than the rest of the industry.
Some of the anxiety in Jackson comes from Hudson Bay's relocation of its information technology operations center from Toronto to St.
The offer applies to a host of developments across west Scotland, as well as Hudson Bay. They include The Scholars in Clydebank, Weavers Meadow in Cumbernauld, Meadowfield in Galston, Mayfield Manor in Stevenston, Gamekeepers Wynd in Ballerup Village in East Kilbride, Crown Gardens at Toryglen, The Sidings, Baillieston, The Grammar in Uddingston, Ballinkeir Place near Bonnybridge, Grangewood in Kilwinning, Cathkin Rise at Cambuslang, Heritage Gate, Parklands, Lime Court in Coatbridge and Earnock Glen and St John's Park, both in Hamilton.
(AFP)-- Twelve killer whales could be in imminent danger after getting trapped by ice in the Hudson Bay off the shore of northern Quebec, the Canadian broadcaster reported.
31 Percentage of ice volume expected to disappear from Hudson Bay by 2040.
They say that projected reductions in the number of newborn cubs is a significant threat to the western Hudson Bay polar-bear population, and if climate change continues unabated the viability of the species across much of the Arctic will be in question.
Hudson Bay Company is Canada's largest department store operator.
The double was completed when Aptitude Test produced a strong finish to win heat three by a length from reserve Hudson Bay in a slick 28.89sec.