Hudson Bay


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Hudson Bay,

inland sea of North America, c.475,000 sq mi (1,230,000 sq km), c.850 mi (1,370 km) long and c.650 mi (1,050 km) wide, E central Canada. Hudson Bay and James Bay (its southern extension) and all their islands border Nunavut Territory, Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec. Hudson Strait (c.450 mi/720 km long) connects Hudson Bay with the Atlantic Ocean, and Foxe Channel leads to the Arctic Ocean. Mansel, Coats, and Southampton islands are at the northern end of the bay. Hudson Bay occupies the southernmost portion of the Hudson Bay Lowlands, a depression in the Canadian ShieldCanadian Shield
or Laurentian Plateau
, U-shaped region of ancient rock, the nucleus of North America, stretching N from the Great Lakes to the Arctic Ocean. Covering more than half of Canada, it also includes most of Greenland and extends into the United States as the
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 formed during the Pleistocene epoch by the weight of the continental ice sheet. As the ice retreated, the region was flooded by the sea, and sediments were deposited in it. With the burden of ice removed, the floor of the lowlands has been slowly rising and the bay is gradually becoming shallower. The western shores are generally low and marshy and covered by tundra, while the east coast is barren and rocky, with the Ottawa and Belcher island groups offshore. Many rivers, including the Churchill and Nelson, drain into the bay. Hudson Bay moderates the local climate; it is ice-free and open to navigation from mid-July to October. The bay was explored and named (1610) by Henry Hudson in his search for the Northwest Passage. The surrounding region was a rich source of furs, and France and England struggled for its possession until 1713, when France ceded its claim by the Peace of Utrecht. Hudson's Bay Company set up many trading posts there, especially at river mouths; some of the posts have operated continuously since 1670. The Hudson Bay Railway (opened 1929) links the prairie provinces with Churchill, Man., a port for oceangoing freighters.

Hudson Bay

 

an inland sea of the Arctic Ocean, which juts from the north deep into Canada. Linked by Hudson Strait to the Atlantic Ocean in the east, by a system of Canadian straits to the Arctic Ocean in the north. Area, 819,000 sq km. Average depth, 112 m; maximum depth, 301 m. Average volume, 92,000 cu km. The climate is arctic. The average temperature of the air in January is from −22‰ to −31‰ C, and in July from 5‰ C in the north to 15‰ C in the south. The currents form a cyclonic cycle. The temperature of the water in winter is below 0‰ C. In August it is from 3‰ C in the north to 9‰ C in the south. A salinity of 23–28.5 parts per thousand (‰) increases in the northwest to 29–30.5‰. From October through July the bay is covered with ice. Tides are semidiurnal, and their height reaches 7.9 m. In the deepwater layer the temperature of the water is from −1.8‰ to −2.2‰ C, and salinity is 32.5–33.3‰. Cod, herring, and flounder are caught, and there is seal hunting. The chief ports are Churchill and Port Nelson. The bay was discovered in 1610 by the English navigator H. Hudson.

Hudson Bay

an inland sea in NE Canada: linked with the Atlantic by Hudson Strait; the S extension forms James Bay; discovered in 1610 by Henry Hudson. Area (excluding James Bay): 647 500 sq. km (250 000 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
To reach Hudson Bay from there, the icebreaker would have had to go up along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean and head west past Quebec through the water passage called the Hudson Strait before heading into the bay, which borders Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and the expansive Nunavut territory.
The Quartz show home at Hudson Bay is a good example of a three-bedroom home - great for a family who need a bit of space - but Hudson Bay also offers two and four-bedroom homes both semi-detached and detached.
In an earlier article dealing with the parameters for human occupation of the Hudson Bay Lowlands (Pilon 2006), I spent some time outlining the main characteristics of the region: its geomorphological history, the current environmental characteristics and challenges of the area, and the resources which could form the economic basis for human occupation in pre-contact times.
31 Percentage of ice volume expected to disappear from Hudson Bay by 2040.
They say that projected reductions in the number of newborn cubs is a significant threat to the western Hudson Bay polar-bear population, and if climate change continues unabated the viability of the species across much of the Arctic will be in question.
Hudson Bay Company is Canada's largest department store operator.
Draw for Friday's semi-finals, first: 1 Hudson Bay, 2 Bling Bling Dano, 3 Lolos Joe, 4 Power Spin, 5 Forest Kaiser (m), 6 Kerrydale Lar (m).
Key words: Canadian Arctic, Hudson Bay region, sea ice, tourism, polar tourism, cruise tourism
Once all aircraft that use the Hudson Bay airspace have been equipped with ADS-B, NAV CANADA expects savings of approximately 18m litres of fuel to be made annually, as well as reduced CO2 equivalent emissions of 50,000 tons per year.
In the following chapters the author brings to life some of her Cree/English/Scots ancestors who lived on the shores of Hudson Bay during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, some of them coastal Cree people, others employees of the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) from England, Scotland and the Orkney Islands.
In the 1700s and 1800s, the Hudson Bay Company, located in Canada, expanded its fur trade from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
A tomb plaque in Norton Church features Christopher's Arms, a beaver of the Hudson Bay Company.