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Hukbalahap(Huk) (ho͝ok'bälähäp`), Communist-led guerrilla movement in the Philippines. It developed during World War II as a guerrilla army to fight the Japanese; the name is a contraction of a Tagalog phrase meaning "People's Anti-Japanese Army." After the war the army openly declared its Communist orientation, and launched an armed revolt against the Philippine government. The Huk's emphasis on land reform attracted many peasants, especially in central Luzon. The movement was also strong on Panay. By 1950 some five provinces were under virtual Huk control and the Philippine government launched a vigorous military campaign against them. After the Huk leader Luis Taruc voluntarily surrendered in 1954, the movement died out. The need for land reform continued, however, and in the late 1960s the Hukbalahaps became active again. In Aug., 1969, President Marcos launched a military campaign against them, and Huk activities ceased in late 1970. Other Communist groups, however, have continued guerrilla activities.
(acronym for the Tagalog name “Hukbo ng Bayan Laban Sa Hapon” [Anti-Japanese People’s Army]), a popular army created in the Philippines on Mar. 29, 1942, from partisan detachments and led by the Communist Party. As of late 1944 the Hukbalahap numbered approximately 10,000 troops, mainly peasants from central and southern Luzon. The army fought against the Japanese occupying forces, the Filipino collaborationist landowners, and the police of the puppet regime.
After the surrender of the Japanese in World War II in September 1945, the Hukbalahap voluntarily disbanded, and the veterans of the army formed the Hukbalahap Veterans’ League. After the Philippines were declared independent in 1946, the league pushed for democratic agrarian reforms. In response to repression by the authorities, Hukbalahap detachments were formed once again. In an attempt to reach a peaceful solution to the questions at issue, the Hukbalahap leaders and the government held talks in 1946 and 1947. When the negotiations proved fruitless, the Communist Party assumed the leadership of an armed struggle against the government. The Hukbalahap was reorganized and renamed the People’s Liberation Army. By the end of 1952 the main forces of the army had been defeated by the government troops and dispersed.
G. I. LEVINSON