Hukbalahap


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Hukbalahap

(Huk) (ho͝ok'bälähäp`), Communist-led guerrilla movement in the Philippines. It developed during World War II as a guerrilla army to fight the Japanese; the name is a contraction of a Tagalog phrase meaning "People's Anti-Japanese Army." After the war the army openly declared its Communist orientation, and launched an armed revolt against the Philippine government. The Huk's emphasis on land reform attracted many peasants, especially in central Luzon. The movement was also strong on Panay. By 1950 some five provinces were under virtual Huk control and the Philippine government launched a vigorous military campaign against them. After the Huk leader Luis Taruc voluntarily surrendered in 1954, the movement died out. The need for land reform continued, however, and in the late 1960s the Hukbalahaps became active again. In Aug., 1969, President Marcos launched a military campaign against them, and Huk activities ceased in late 1970. Other Communist groups, however, have continued guerrilla activities.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Hukbalahap

 

(acronym for the Tagalog name “Hukbo ng Bayan Laban Sa Hapon” [Anti-Japanese People’s Army]), a popular army created in the Philippines on Mar. 29, 1942, from partisan detachments and led by the Communist Party. As of late 1944 the Hukbalahap numbered approximately 10,000 troops, mainly peasants from central and southern Luzon. The army fought against the Japanese occupying forces, the Filipino collaborationist landowners, and the police of the puppet regime.

After the surrender of the Japanese in World War II in September 1945, the Hukbalahap voluntarily disbanded, and the veterans of the army formed the Hukbalahap Veterans’ League. After the Philippines were declared independent in 1946, the league pushed for democratic agrarian reforms. In response to repression by the authorities, Hukbalahap detachments were formed once again. In an attempt to reach a peaceful solution to the questions at issue, the Hukbalahap leaders and the government held talks in 1946 and 1947. When the negotiations proved fruitless, the Communist Party assumed the leadership of an armed struggle against the government. The Hukbalahap was reorganized and renamed the People’s Liberation Army. By the end of 1952 the main forces of the army had been defeated by the government troops and dispersed.

G. I. LEVINSON

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The man told Nellist he and his men were in Hukbalahap land and could not pass.
The Hukbalahap Insurrection: A Case Study of a Successful Anti-Insurgency Operation in the Philippines, 1946-1955.
The country at that time was reeling from the ravages of World War II and the Japanese occupation as well as a communist-led insurgency by the Hukbalahap in the countryside.
During the Second World War there was a Philippine guerrilla movement called the Hukbalahap or Huks that fought the Japanese occupation.
The Anti-Subversion Law was passed in 1957 during the presidency of Carlos Garcia and made membership in the Hukbalahap movement a crime.
The anti-subversion law was passed in 1957 during the presidency of Carlos Garcia, thereby making membership in the Hukbalahap movement a crime.
The occupation of the Japanese led to the formation of HUKBALAHAP. USAFFE experienced a beating from the Japanese forces resulting to General Douglas MacArthur's departure to Australia together with his troops.
Local or regional concerns quickly became caught up in the conflict as a Luzon-based peasant movement (the Hukbalahap, or Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon, People's Anti-Japanese Army), initially dedicated to fighting Japanese aggression during the Second World War, developed institutional capabilities powerful enough to prevent the return to the countryside of previously dominant economic classes after the end of the war.
He sympathized with the Hukbalahap who were demonized as communist in the beginning of the cold war.
Army) 67 1966-1967, Bolivia (Che) ALN (National Liberating Action) 68-70 1968-1970, Sao Paulo, Brazil (Marighella) SLA (Symbionese Liberation Army) 73-75 1972-1975, California Front Line (Primea Linea) 76-81 1976-1982, Italy VZJ (Free South Malaccan Youth Org.) 75-78 1975-1979, Netherlands Hoffman Military Sports Group 80-81 1979-1981, Germany The Order 83-84 1982-1984, Pacific N.W., USA Communist Combatant Cells 84-85 1984-1985, Belgium DURATION of MAIN VIOLENCE: MIDTERM 8-15 YEARS Huks (Hukbalahap) 48-54 1946-1955, Luzon, Philippines Tupamaros 63-75 1962-1976, Uruguay.
Phillips first came to Vietnam in 1954 as a 24-year-old Army second lieutenant on detail to CIA and assigned to work for the legendary Ed Lansdale, already a seminal figure in the annals of counterinsurgency because of his success, as an advisor to Philippine Defense Minister (later President) Ramon Magsaysay, in facilitating the Filipino defeat of the communist Hukbalahap insurgency in the early 1950s.
(6) Examples include the Hukbalahap in the Philippines, the Malaya Races Liberation Army (MRLA) in Malaya, and the Viet Cong in Vietnam.