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Hull, former city, Canada
Hull, city, England
Hull, officially Kingston upon Hull, city and unitary authority (2011 pop. 256,406), NE England, on the north shore of the Humber estuary at the influx of the small Hull River. Its port is one of the chief outlets for the surrounding area, which is also accessible by rail. Imports include oilseed, wood, foodstuffs, wool, metal ores, and petroleum; exports include coal, coke, machinery, automobiles, tractors, iron and steel products, and textiles. Hull is also one of the world's largest fishing ports. Among its many manufactures are processed foods, chemicals, iron and steel products, and machinery. Flour mills and sawmills are nearby.
Hull was founded late in the 13th cent. by Edward I, and the construction of docks, which extend for miles along the Humber, was begun c.1775. In July, 1981, the Humber Bridge was opened; communication with other cities thus improved, and Hull's economic value increased. The Wilberforce House, Municipal Museum, and Ferens Art Galleries are noteworthy. The grammar school, founded in 1486, was attended by Andrew Marvell and William Wilberforce, who were born in Hull. Schools include the Univ. of Hull, Endsleigh College, and Kingston upon Hull College. Trinity House, established in 1369 to aid sailors, has been Trinity House Navigation School since 1787. Hull's annual fair is one of the largest in England.
the principal part of a ship, consisting of the shell and the frame (framing).
The hull provides buoyancy and general and local strength to the ship and makes it possible to arrange a place for people, cargo, equipment, weaponry, and other things according to the functions of the ship. The outer shell of the hull (bottom and side plating and deck surface) makes it watertight; it may be multitiered. The inside shells, which divide the hull into compartments, are called second bottom, second or inside walls, lower decks, platforms, and bulkheads. The frame and plating are essential elements of any ship hull; the use of decks and bulk-heads depends on the function of the ship. A distinction is made between the main hull and above-deck structures arranged on the continuous top deck (ship superstructures, rooms, masts, and the like).
In modern shipbuilding steel, aluminum and titanium alloys, plastics, wood, and reinforced concrete are used for building the hulls of ships. What is called hull steel in the form of sheets, strips, rolled sections (bulb bar, T -section, angle and shaped) with maximum yield between 220 and 700 meganewtons per sq m (from 22 to 70 kilograms = force per sq mm) has become most common for building the hulls of ships of different sizes and designations. The individual steel parts of the hull are connected by welding and in some cases by riveting. Aluminum alloys, wood, and plastics are used basically for building the hulls of small ships and for above-deck structures. Titanium alloys are used primarily for building the strong hulls of submarines, and reinforced concrete is used for the hulls of barges, docks, and landing stages.
REFERENCEBarabanov, N. V. Konstruktsiia korpusa morskikh sudov. Leningrad, 1969.
A. I. MAKSIMADZHI