human papillomavirus

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human papillomavirus

(HPV), any of a family of more than 100 viruses that cause various growths, including plantar wartswart,
circumscribed outgrowth of the skin caused by a filterable virus that is readily transmitted. Warts may appear anywhere on the skin but are most common on the hands.
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 and genital warts, a sexually transmitted diseasesexually transmitted disease
(STD) or venereal disease,
term for infections acquired mainly through sexual contact. Five diseases were traditionally known as venereal diseases: gonorrhea, syphilis, and the less common granuloma inguinale, lymphogranuloma venereum, and
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. Genital warts, sometimes called condylomata acuminata, are soft and often occur in clusters. They can occur internally or externally, but even in the absence of warts the virus may be present and transmittable. Problems can result from untreated warts, which can grow quite large, or, in rare cases, from infection of an infant during delivery. In addition, about a dozen strains of HPV are associated with cancercancer,
in medicine, common term for neoplasms, or tumors, that are malignant. Like benign tumors, malignant tumors do not respond to body mechanisms that limit cell growth.
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 of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, and anus, and HPV 16 has been shown to be associated with some forms of Kaposi's sarcoma (see AIDSAIDS
or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,
fatal disease caused by a rapidly mutating retrovirus that attacks the immune system and leaves the victim vulnerable to infections, malignancies, and neurological disorders. It was first recognized as a disease in 1981.
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) and throat cancer.

Transmission of HPV strains is often the result of sexual contact, but it can also occur as the result of any skin-to-skin contact involving the mouth or genitals. Detectable warts can be or removed, usually by chemicals, freezing, or laser, but often recur. Intralesional alpha interferon has been effective in the treatment of genital warts. A vaccine approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2006 can protect a woman against those strains that cause most cases of cervical cancer and genital warts, and a study has shown it may also protect against related throat cancers. HPV vaccination is now recommended for both girls and boys beginning at 11 to 12 years of age.

human papillomavirus

[¦yü·mən ‚pap·ə′lō·mə ‚vī·rəs]
(medicine)
One of a family of more than 100 different viruses, most commonly spread via sexual contact, that cause warts on the hands and feet and in the genital area; several types are associated with premalignant and malignant changes in the cervix. Abbreviated HPV.
References in periodicals archive ?
von Bultzingstowen et al., "Human papillomaviruses in oral carcinoma and oral potentially malignant disorders: a systematic review," Oral Diseases, vol.
His research interests are murine and human polyomaviruses and human papillomaviruses.
The human papillomaviruses (HPVs) that were listed as carcinogens are of the genital-mucosal type.
External genital warts of the vulva, penis and anal canal are caused by infection with low risk human papillomaviruses (Birley et al., 1995; Ferenczy, 1995a; Stone, 1995; Woolley, 1995).
Smoking is considered to be one of the principal causes of lung cancer; however, genetic factors such as mutation or over-expression of oncogenes e.g., c-myc, erbB2, polymorphism in P450 (CYP1A1) and glutathione transferase M1 genes, functional inactivation of tumor suppressor genes eg, Rb, p16, p53 genes including p53 codon 72 polymorphism, and infection of specific types of human papillomaviruses, have been implicated with the development of lung cancer (87,88).
describe the impact of human papillomaviruses on cell cycle and apoptosis.
Human papillomaviruses are DNA-containing viruses that commonly cause warts.
Identification of two cross-neutralising linear epitopes within the L1 major capsid protein of human papillomaviruses. J Virol 2002; 76 : 6480-6.
The discovery that human papillomaviruses (HPV) are etiologically linked with cervical cancer has led to efforts to apply this knowledge to improve cervical cancer screening and to potentially prevent cervical cancer through vaccination.
The scientists say this suggests a possible mechanism for at least part of vitamin A's apparent anticancer potential, as human papillomaviruses have been found in precancerous and cancerous areas.

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