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Ecology a small community of plants within a larger association



in its broad sense the aggregate of the historically established forms of joint human activity.

Society, a unique and the highest stage in the development of living beings, manifests itself in the functioning and development of social organizations, institutions, and groups, and in the inner workings of class and other social contradictions. In its narrow sense “society” can mean a historically specific type of social system, such as a capitalist society; a particular social structure belonging to such a type, such as Japanese feudalism; or a particular form of social relations, for example, society as contrasted to the state in Hegel.

The central problem of all theories of society throughout the history of sociophilosophical thought has been the explanation of the nature of social ties and of man’s correspondingly social nature. Different solutions of this problem also determine to a great degree the treatment of different types of social activity, including individual actions. A truly scientific theory of society was first created by the founders of Marxism-Leninism.


A secondary or minor plant community forming part of a community.
An organization of individuals of the same species in which there are divisions of resources and of labor as well as mutual dependence.
References in periodicals archive ?
It might appear that human societies are naturally hierarchical because most of history records monarchies or other forms of dictatorial governments.
But history shows that religious individuals and their institutions have no immunity against that which plagues all actual human societies, namely, the willingness to do terrible things on behalf of what seems important or self-securing.
In this case, Diamond, a biologist, is trying to apply biology's master narrative to human societies.
The answers became the basis of his provocative 1999 best seller, ``Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies,'' now transformed by producer-director Tim Lambert into a user-friendly three-part series on PBS.
Cicero, in The Laws (122), spoke of natural law as the innate laws of nature to which it is just for all human societies to conform, and which can be discerned by reason.
Recommends: Guns, Germs, and Steel: the Fates of Human Societies
The term "myth" is one calculated to cause discomfiture among historians, rightly alert to the discrepancies between the lofty ideals celebrated in political panegyric and the baser realities of human societies in action.
Renfrew explains that the interaction that artists have with the material world mimics the development of human societies.
War begets war and shapes human societies as it does so.
The book contains a great deal of research into animal and primate behavior, some of which illuminates Goldstein's larger arguments, but it is hard to see how an analysis of the behavior of wrasse and cichlid fish enhances our understanding of gender and warfare in human societies.
Highlighting the absurdity of GDP-fixated human societies pinning their hopes on exponential economic growth while ignoring the social and environmental 'externalities' of consumerism, Schumacher expounded the virtues of smaller working units, communal ownership and regional workplaces that used local labour and resources.