(10) This concern for reconciliation is clear in Innocent's emphasis on assimilating these new unorthodox groups popping up, like the Humiliati
and the Waldensians.
There was a place in this process of reform toward the liturgy for the somewhat irregular preaching and moral exhortation of groups such as the Catholic Poor and the Humiliati
, who preached from the steps of the Church; likewise for manifestly orthodox and clerical, yet itinerant, and so unusual, preachers such as Fulk of Neuilly and St.
By 1438 Humiliati
monks had returned to the monastery; they remained there until 1527 when the Benedictine nuns, who still occupy the monastery today, succeeded them.
Counterbalancing the clergy's role in religious charity are lay charitable practices in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries (chapter 5), apparent primarily in the vitae of male and female saints, in addition to "spiritual" movements and groups like the beguines and Humiliati
. The social responsibility undertaken by less-organized lay confraternities and parishes across France, Spain, Italy, the Low Countries, England, and Germany reveals a great deal about religious mentalities toward mutual assistance in the medieval community: "their collective policies ...
Miller, "The Ognissanti Madonna and the Humiliati
Order in Florence"; Benjamin G.
Among these were the humiliati
and Patarenes of Lombardy.
The earliest groups, such as the lay sect in Monforte near Turin, whose members were burned in 1034, and the better-known "apostolic" movements of the twelfth century, the Petrobrusians, Humiliati
, and Waldensians, professed a biblically-inspired life marked by poverty, preaching, hostility to the clergy, and a rejection of formal cult.
7 This is made clear by Gregory elsewhere, however; in the Moralia (PL 76, 628A) he states: 'In ipso [Chrislo] res-taurantur ea quae in coelis sunt, dum illuc humiliati
homines redeunt unde apostatae angeh superbiendo ceciderunt.'
Some, like the religious confraternities, the guilds, the mendicant orders in their early days, the associations of mendicant Tertiaries, the Humiliati
, and the Beguines and Beghards were expressions of corporate religiosity.
Moore discusses Sardinia and the papal state; and in an especially exciting piece Brenda Bolton investigates Innocent's reactions to popular piety as represented by the Humiliati
A member of the Humiliati
(Umiliati), a Milanese monastic order, Bonvesin taught grammar and wrote a great many moralistic and religious works in Latin and in the vernacular.
It was this unchecked freedom within urban areas that gave rise to the Waldenses in France and the Humiliati