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(self-designation, Magyars), a nation (natsiia, nation in the historical sense) constituting 98.2 percent of the population of the Hungarian People’s Republic. Population, more than 9.78 million (according to the 1960 census). Hungarians also live in Rumania (more than 1.6 million, including an isolated ethnic group of Szeklers, or Szekels, numbering approximately 600,000), Czechoslovakia (more than 400,000), Yugoslavia (more than 500,000), the USSR (approximately 200,000 in Transcarpathian [Zakarpatskaia] Oblast, Ukrainian SSR), the USA (approximately 200,000), Canada (approximately 100,000), South America (mainly in Argentina), West Germany, and Austria. They speak Hungarian. The religion of most Hungarians is Catholicism.

In the first few centuries A. D. the territory of Hungary was inhabited by Celtic tribes; later by Goths, Huns, and Avars; and beginning in the sixth century, by Slavic tribes as well. In the late ninth century the regions making up present-day Hungary were overrun by the Ugric tribes of the Magyars, or Hungarians—nomadic cattle breeders who had originally lived along the middle and lower course of the Kama River and then migrated to the Black Sea steppes, from which they were forced out by the Pechenegs. The formation of the Hungarian nationality, based primarily on the Magyars who had merged with the Slavs and the remnants of other tribes living on the Danube, occurred during the Middle Ages within the framework of the early Hungarian feudal state established in the tenth century. Various linguistic and ethnic elements (Polovtsi-Cumans, Germans, and gypsies) continued to be absorbed by the Hungarians even as late as the 14th to 19th centuries. During the first half of the 16th century most of Hungary was conquered by the Turks, and some regions of the country came under the rule of the Austrian Hapsburgs. This marked the beginning of a long period of struggle by the Hungarian people for their national independence from the Turks and the Austrian empire of the Hapsburgs. The struggle for economic and social change in the first half of the 19th century and the Hungarian Revolution of 1848-49 contributed to the growth of national self-awareness and the unity of the Hungarian people. After World War I, Hungary became an independent state (1918). The establishment of the people’s democratic system in 1945 created all of the conditions for the comprehensive socialist development of the Hungarian nation. A considerable number of Hungarians are industrial workers; the remainder of the population is employed mainly in agriculture (farming and viticulture) and the traditional Hungarian occupation, livestock raising. The Hungarians have preserved their own distinctive dwellings, clothing, and cuisine.


Narody zarubezhnoi Evropy, vol. 1. Moscow, 1964.


References in periodicals archive ?
Courage and persistence is a characteristic of the whole nation, in addition to which the Hungarians are a hard-working and industrious people who can stand their ground anywhere in the world, he said.
While hailing the successes achieved by Tunisia in matters of democratic transition, the Hungarian official reaffirmed his government's outright support to Tunisia at the bilateral and European levels and commitment to foster co-operation and partnership relations in all fields.
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According to Csepeli, it is not rare for people today to be within the scope of two national categories, which is also the case for many Hungarians living in minority (Csepeli 1992: 35).
I think the society will bring Hungarians in the area together and it will be especially interesting for the older ones like myself, who have been here for ever, to meet the younger ones," he said.
As part of this year's celebrations, a Sandor Petofi anthology titled Lyre and Saber translated into Macedonian was also presented at the Matica publishing house in Skopje during a cultural programme sponsored by the Hungarian Embassy.
We wish to establish strategic partnership between MEPSO and the Hungarian energy company," said Peter Szijjarto, Co-Chairman of the Hungarian-Macedonian Business Council.
In the 19th century, Hungarian nobles (who supported the Austrian Emperor) still retained their privileges of paying no taxes and not allowing the masses to participate in votes and elections.
The exhibition, which lasts until the end of April, was organized by the Hungarian Excavation Mission working in Syria for several years due to an agreement signed between Syria and the Hungarian Peter Pazmany University.
One Day That Shook the Communist World: The 1956 Hungarian Uprising and Its Legacy.
The larger Library of Congress acquisition included the personal library of Charles Feleky, a Hungarian emigrant, musician, and the visionary behind the HRL, and materials collected after Feleky's death in 1930.

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