hunger strike

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hunger strike,

refusal to eat as a protest against existing conditions. Although most often used by prisoners, others have also employed it. For example, Mohandas GandhiGandhi, Mohandas Karamchand
, 1869–1948, Indian political and spiritual leader, b. Porbandar. In South Africa

Educated in India and in London, he was admitted to the English bar in 1889 and practiced law unsuccessfully in India for two years.
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 in India and Cesar ChavezChavez, Cesar Estrada
, 1927–93, American agrarian labor leader, b. near Yuma, Ariz. A migrant worker, he became involved (1952) in the self-help Community Service Organization (CSO) in California, working among Mexicans and Mexican Americans; from 1958 to 1962 he was its
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 in California fasted as religious penance during otherwise political or economic disputes. An ancient device, the hunger strike was revived in England in the early 20th cent. by militant woman suffragists and became the accepted technique of those sentenced for suffragist activities. The passage of the so-called Cat-and-Mouse Act in 1913, by which the prisoners in ill health due to fasting could be temporarily discharged, ended the forced feeding to which the authorities had resorted. The Franchise Act of 1918 ended the suffragist hunger strikes in England. The hunger strike was used by Irish nationalists in 1912 and again later on. Hunger strikes were used by members of Sinn FéinSinn Féin
[Irish,=we, ourselves], Irish nationalist movement. It had its roots in the Irish cultural revival at the end of the 19th cent. and the growing nationalist disenchantment with the constitutional Home Rule movement.
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 in 1920, and Terence MacSwiney, lord mayor of Cork, died in a London prison after a fast of 74 days. Thereafter, hunger striking was forbidden by the Sinn Féin. It was used again in the 1970s and 1980s by imprisoned members of the Irish Republican ArmyIrish Republican Army
(IRA), nationalist organization devoted to the integration of Ireland as a complete and independent unit. Organized by Michael Collins from remnants of rebel units dispersed after the Easter Rebellion in 1916 (see Ireland), it was composed of the more
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. Hunger striking was used between 1917 and 1919 by American woman suffragists and also by conscientious objectors imprisoned in the United States. During the Vietnam War, the Roman Catholic priests Daniel and Philip BerriganBerrigan brothers
, American Catholic priests, writers, and social activists. Daniel Berrigan, 1921–2016, b. Syracuse, N.Y., was ordained in the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) in 1952.
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 used the hunger strike in 1969 at Danbury Prison, Conn., where they had been imprisoned for destroying draft records. In 1970 inmates in California's Soledad Prison used it on a massive scale to protest prison conditions. and in 2000–2001 several hundred leftist inmates in Turkish prisons and others in Turkey used "death fasts" to protest prison conditions. Alleged TalibanTaliban
or Taleban
, Islamic fundamentalist militia of Afghanistan and later Pakistan, originally consisting mainly of Sunni Pashtun religious students from Afghanistan who were educated and trained in Pakistan.
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 and Al QaedaAl Qaeda
or Al Qaida
[Arab.,=the base], Sunni Islamic terrorist organization with the stated goals of uniting all Muslims and establishing a transnational, strict-fundamentalist Islamic state.
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 members held at Guantánamo Bay by the United States since 2002 have also used hunger strikes to protest their imprisonment there.
References in periodicals archive ?
Meanwhile, Israeli settlers used the hunger strikes as an opportunity to taunt Palestinians.
The Republicans organised twenty-two hunger strikes in Northern Ireland between 1917 and 1981 in protest against British rule.
The hunger strike in Turkey was launched by 13 Kurdish prisoners on February 15 and has since been joined by another 174 inmates.
For his part, head of the Palestinian Committee of Prisoners' Affairs Issa Qaraqe said in a statement that Malik al-Qadi has entered a very critical condition as he continues his hunger strike for 71 days.
The new hunger strikers joined another group of detainees who have been on hunger strike in protest of their detention without charge or trial for 32 days.
Hennessey provides a highly detailed narrative of the origins and evolution of the hunger strikes of 1980-81, concluding with his own overall interpretation.
EIPR added that in some occasions prison administrations attempt to convince detainees to suspend their hunger strike "either through persuasion or coercion".
Some of these youngsters are already handicapped and will retain the traces of these hunger strikes for the rest of their lives.
medieval Ireland, where hunger strikes were actually encoded in civic
More than 30 Myanmar nationals detained at an immigration facility outside Tokyo are on a hunger strike in protest against the Myanmar junta's crackdown on antigovernment demonstrators, one of the detainees said Thursday.
He said: "During the hunger strike campaign he had the idea of kidnapping four British lords and their sons and putting them on a forced hunger strike while the hunger strikers went on to further their demands.
When asked what is the legacy of the hunger strikes, when asked where are we 20 years on, there are more republicans on this island today than there were 20 years before," he told around 100 people gathered in the grounds of the Roddy McCorley Club on the Glen Road, Belfast.