Husayn ibn Ali

(redirected from Hussein bin Ali)

Husayn ibn Ali

(ĭ`bən ä`lē), 1856–1931, Arab political and religious leader. In 1908 he succeeded as grand sherif of Mecca and thus became ruler of the HejazHejaz
or Hedjaz
, region, c.150,000 sq mi (388,500 sq km), NW Saudi Arabia, on the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea. Mecca is the chief city. Extending S to Asir, Hejaz is mainly a dissected highland region lying between the narrow, long coastal strip and the interior
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 under the Ottoman Empire. In World War I, after receiving British assurances that all Arab lands not under French control would be liberated, he began (1916) a successful revolt against the Turks in Arabia and proclaimed himself king of the Hejaz and of all Arabia. Believing that the British had not kept their promises, he refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles.

Great Britain lent him no support in his struggle with Ibn SaudIbn Saud
(Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud) , c.1880–1953, founder of Saudi Arabia and its first king. His family, with its regular seat at Riyadh in the Nejd, were the traditional leaders of the ultraorthodox Wahhabi movement in Islam.
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, who defeated him in 1924, forcing him to abdicate and renounce his claim to the caliphate. That claim, advanced after the Turkish parliament abolished the Ottoman caliphate in 1924, was based on Husayn's membership in the Hashemite family, a branch of the Quraysh tribe, to which Muhammad the Prophet had belonged. Husayn lived (1924–30) in exile on Cyprus. He died in Amman, the capital of Transjordan (now Jordan). Abdullah IAbdullah I
(Abdullah ibn Husayn) , 1882–1951, king of Jordan (1946–51), b. Mecca; son of Husayn ibn Ali of the Hashemite family. During World War I, Abdullah, with British support, led Arab revolts against Turkish rule.
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 of Jordan and Faisal IFaisal I
or Faysal I
, 1885–1933, king of Iraq (1921–33). The third son of Husayn ibn Ali, sherif of Mecca, he is also called Faisal ibn Husayn. Faisal was educated in Constantinople and later sat in the Ottoman parliament as deputy for Jidda.
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 of Iraq were his sons.

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Husayn Ibn Ali

 

Born circa 1854; died June 4, 1931, in Amman. Sharif of the Ottoman territories of Mecca and the Hejaz (1908–16). King of the Hejaz (1916–24). Founder of the Hashimite dynasty.

During World War I, Husayn concluded the McMahon-Husayn Agreement of 1915 with Great Britain. According to the terms of the agreement, Britain pledged to recognize the independence of a future Arab state headed by Husayn. As planned in the agreement, Husain raised a revolt against the Ottoman Empire on June 15, 1916, and proclaimed himself king of the Arabs on November 2. Great Britain, however, had already secretly breached its pledge in the spring of 1916 by signing the Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916 with France. In accordance with this agreement, Britain and France recognized Husayn as king of only the Hejaz.

In March 1924, Husayn, claiming leadership in the Muslim world, declared himself caliph; the Hejaz, however, was the only Muslim state to recognize him. Striving for hegemony in the Arabian Peninsula, Husayn declared war against ibn Saud, the emir of Nejd. The Nejd-Hejaz War of 1924–25 ended in defeat for Husayn. On Oct. 24, 1924, he abdicated the throne in favor of his eldest son, Ali. After 1925, Husayn lived in Cyprus and Transjordan.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Moreover, the King reviewed plans by the Royal Engineering Directorate at the Royal Hashemite Court for the rehabilitation of the mosque, which was rebuilt during the reign of King Abdullah I ibn Al Hussein in 1921 (1341 Hijri) and was named after the leader of the Great Arab Revolt, Sharif Hussein bin Ali. The mosque's actual building dates back to the reign of Islamic Caliph Omar ibn Al Khattab.
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And will also visit the shrine of Imam Ali bin Abi Talib as well as the visit to the Kufa Mosque .And will head to the province of Karbala to perform the ceremony of the visit of Imam Hussein bin Ali and his brother Abbas ./ End
Acting Charge d'affaires in the Qatari Embassy in Baghdad Hussein bin Ali al Fadala delivered the message during a meeting with the Iraqi president in Baghdad on Thursday.
Qatar's acting charge d'affairs in Baghdad Hussein bin Ali al-Fadala delivered the message during a meeting with the Iraqi President yesterday.
The celebration coincided with the holy Day of Ashura festival, which millions of Muslim men around the world took part to mark in the anniversary the martyrdom of Imam Hussein Bin Ali. The participants raised the national flags of the country banners and slangs against US policy, Saudi-led coalition and its siege imposed on the Yemeni people.
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Haidar Ahmed Dafa'alla, received in his office Monday the Prosecutor General of the Sultanate of Oman, Osman Hussein bin Ali Al-Hilali, and the accompanying delegation, in presence of the Attorney General, Omer Ahmed Mohamed, and the Deputy Chief Justice, Mahjoub Al-Amin Al-Fekki.
TEHRAN (FNA)- Head of Iran's General Inspectorate Organization Nasser Seraj and Oman's Public Prosecutor Hussein bin Ali al-Hilali in a meeting in Tehran on Wednesday discussed broadening of relations, specially in campaign against financial corruption.
Hussein bin Ali Mahdi Al-Shaari was going toward a shop before the evening prayer when he was attacked, his brother, Ali, was quoted as saying.