Husayn ibn Ali

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Husayn ibn Ali

(ĭ`bən ä`lē), 1856–1931, Arab political and religious leader. In 1908 he succeeded as grand sherif of Mecca and thus became ruler of the HejazHejaz
or Hedjaz
, region, c.150,000 sq mi (388,500 sq km), NW Saudi Arabia, on the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea. Mecca is the chief city. Extending S to Asir, Hejaz is mainly a dissected highland region lying between the narrow, long coastal strip and the interior
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 under the Ottoman Empire. In World War I, after receiving British assurances that all Arab lands not under French control would be liberated, he began (1916) a successful revolt against the Turks in Arabia and proclaimed himself king of the Hejaz and of all Arabia. Believing that the British had not kept their promises, he refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles.

Great Britain lent him no support in his struggle with Ibn SaudIbn Saud
(Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud) , c.1880–1953, founder of Saudi Arabia and its first king. His family, with its regular seat at Riyadh in the Nejd, were the traditional leaders of the ultraorthodox Wahhabi movement in Islam.
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, who defeated him in 1924, forcing him to abdicate and renounce his claim to the caliphate. That claim, advanced after the Turkish parliament abolished the Ottoman caliphate in 1924, was based on Husayn's membership in the Hashemite family, a branch of the Quraysh tribe, to which Muhammad the Prophet had belonged. Husayn lived (1924–30) in exile on Cyprus. He died in Amman, the capital of Transjordan (now Jordan). Abdullah IAbdullah I
(Abdullah ibn Husayn) , 1882–1951, king of Jordan (1946–51), b. Mecca; son of Husayn ibn Ali of the Hashemite family. During World War I, Abdullah, with British support, led Arab revolts against Turkish rule.
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 of Jordan and Faisal IFaisal I
or Faysal I
, 1885–1933, king of Iraq (1921–33). The third son of Husayn ibn Ali, sherif of Mecca, he is also called Faisal ibn Husayn. Faisal was educated in Constantinople and later sat in the Ottoman parliament as deputy for Jidda.
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 of Iraq were his sons.

Husayn Ibn Ali

 

Born circa 1854; died June 4, 1931, in Amman. Sharif of the Ottoman territories of Mecca and the Hejaz (1908–16). King of the Hejaz (1916–24). Founder of the Hashimite dynasty.

During World War I, Husayn concluded the McMahon-Husayn Agreement of 1915 with Great Britain. According to the terms of the agreement, Britain pledged to recognize the independence of a future Arab state headed by Husayn. As planned in the agreement, Husain raised a revolt against the Ottoman Empire on June 15, 1916, and proclaimed himself king of the Arabs on November 2. Great Britain, however, had already secretly breached its pledge in the spring of 1916 by signing the Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916 with France. In accordance with this agreement, Britain and France recognized Husayn as king of only the Hejaz.

In March 1924, Husayn, claiming leadership in the Muslim world, declared himself caliph; the Hejaz, however, was the only Muslim state to recognize him. Striving for hegemony in the Arabian Peninsula, Husayn declared war against ibn Saud, the emir of Nejd. The Nejd-Hejaz War of 1924–25 ended in defeat for Husayn. On Oct. 24, 1924, he abdicated the throne in favor of his eldest son, Ali. After 1925, Husayn lived in Cyprus and Transjordan.

References in periodicals archive ?
Zainab bint Ali, granddaughter of the Prophet Muhammad, who confronted the tyrant of her time after he had commanded the murder and beheading of her brother, Hussein ibn Ali, and 72 of his companions.
In fact, this state was created on behalf of Emir Faisal of Mecca, son of Sharif Hussein ibn Ali and perpetrator of the "Great Arab Revolt" against the Ottoman Empire, as a substitute for his short-lived Syrian kingdom from which he had been expelled by French forces.
The real test of Asma's tolerance and patience appeared after the martyrdom of Hussein ibn Ali (May Allah be pleased with him) at Karbala.
The event marks the anniversary of the Battle of Karbala when Imam Hussein ibn Ali, the grandson of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was killed.
During a ceremony held on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of establishing of the Jordan Hashemite Charity Organization (JHCO), the King also honored HRH Prince Rashid Bin Al Hassan with the Order of Hussein Ibn Ali of First Class, for his contributions in serving the country and chairing of JHCO Board of Trustees.
This article will argue that if Sharif Hussein ibn Ali had been granted lands that were requested by him in a series of formal letters to British leaders in Egypt the region that briefly became known as the Kingdom of the Hejaz would have constituted an Arab based empire in the Middle East.
The day of Ashoura is on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and is commemorated by Shiites as the day when Hussein ibn Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Mohammad, was killed.
It is well known because of historical significance and mourning for the martyrdom of Hussein ibn Ali, the grandson of Prophet Muhammad.
The severed head of Hussein Ibn Ali, the third Shiite Imam, is believed to be buried in Cairo and could attract many Iranian pilgrims every year.
Ashura marks the death of Shi'ite Islam's "Prince Of The Martyrs", Imam Hussein ibn Ali, the third of 12 "Divine Imams" in Ja'fari Shi'ism.
In 1916, the British promised the grand; sharif of Mecca, Hussein ibn Ali, independence for all lands in what today are Syria and Iraq if his forces would join them in attacking the Turks.
Two appeared directed at security forces and one at Iranian pilgrims marching to observe Arba'een, which commemorates the end of the 40-day mourning period for the death of Imam Hussein ibn Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad.