Hussites

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Hussites

(hŭs`īts), followers of John Huss. After the burning of Huss (1415) and Jerome of Prague (1416), the Hussites continued as a powerful group in Bohemia and Moravia. They drew up (1420) the Four Articles of Prague, demanding freedom of preaching, communion in both kinds (i.e., both wine and bread) for the laity as well as priests, the limitation of property holding by the church, and civil punishment of mortal sin, including simony.

Although it ultimately failed, the Hussite movement is of permanent historical significance. It was the first substantial attack upon the two bulwarks of medieval society, feudalism and the Roman Catholic Church. As such it helped pave the way for both the Protestant Reformation and the rise of modern nationalism.

The Utraquists and the Taborites

In 1419 the Hussite WarsHussite Wars,
series of conflicts in the 15th cent., caused by the rise of the Hussites in Bohemia and Moravia. It was a religious struggle between Hussites and the Roman Catholic Church, a national struggle between Czechs and Germans, and a social struggle between the landed
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 began, and in their course the Hussite movement splintered into several groups. The moderate group, called Utraquists [Lat. sub utraque specie=in both kinds] or Calixtines [Lat.,=chalice], consisted chiefly of the lesser nobility and the bourgeoisie. The Univ. of Prague was their center and Master Jan Rokycana their principal leader. Except for the demands made in the Four Articles, they agreed substantially with the Roman Catholic Church.

The more radical Hussites, the Taborites, named after their religious center and stronghold at Tabor, went further than the Utraquists in accepting the doctrines of John Wyclif. Consisting largely of peasants, this group expressed the messianic hopes of the oppressed. They regarded the Four Articles as minimal concessions. Their real goal was the total abolition of the feudal system and the establishment of a classless society without private property. From among their number came such leaders as John ZizkaZizka, John
, Czech Jan Žižka , d. 1424, Bohemian military leader and head of the Hussite forces during the anti-Hussite crusades of Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund.
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 and Procopius the GreatProcopius the Great,
Czech Prokop Holý, d. 1434, Czech Hussite leader. A priest, he joined the Hussite movement (see Hussites) and distinguished himself as a captain under John Zizka in the Hussite Wars.
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. Puritanical and iconoclastic, the Taborites reduced the sacraments to communion and baptism, denied the Real Presence, and abolished the veneration of saints and holy images.

The Hussite Wars necessitated a temporary alliance between the two groups. However, when the Utraquists were reconciled (1436) with the church through the agreement known as the Compactata, the Taborites refused to acquiesce. Of the demands of the original Four Articles, the Catholic Church conceded only on communion in both kinds. The obstinacy of the Taborites led to the alliance between the Utraquists and the Catholics and to the military defeat of the Taborites at Lipany (1534). After this, Taborite influence vanished from Bohemia. The Bohemian and Moravian Brethren are, however, probably descended from this group (see Moravian ChurchMoravian Church,
 Renewed Church of the Brethren,
or Unitas Fratrum
, an evangelical Christian communion whose adherents are sometimes called United Brethren or Herrnhuters.
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).

Further Division and Suppression

The Utraquists obtained (1436) royal recognition of the Compactata, which remained the fundamental religious law of Bohemia until 1567. By that time Protestantism had made great progress in Bohemia, and the Utraquists themselves were divided. The Old Utraquists remained Catholic; the New Utraquists joined with the Lutherans and drew up (1575) the Confessio Bohemia, which achieved official status (1609) in the Letter of Majesty of Emperor Rudolph II (see BohemiaBohemia,
Czech Čechy, historic region (20,368 sq mi/52,753 sq km) and former kingdom, in W and central Czech Republic. Bohemia is bounded by Austria in the southeast, by Germany in the west and northwest, by Poland in the north and northeast, and by Moravia in the
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). The violation of this letter was the prelude to the Thirty Years WarThirty Years War,
1618–48, general European war fought mainly in Germany. General Character of the War

There were many territorial, dynastic, and religious issues that figured in the outbreak and conduct of the war.
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. Bohemia, which was overwhelmingly Protestant in the mid-16th cent., was returned to Catholicism by both force and persuasion. Nevertheless, the Evangelicals, as the Lutheran Utraquists were called, did not entirely disappear, and neither did the other major communion, the Moravian Church.

Bibliography

See H. Kaminsky, A History of the Hussite Revolution (1967); F. M. Bartos, The Hussite Revolution, 1424–1437 (1986).

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References in periodicals archive ?
Yet the Hussite Revolution was unique in a number of ways.
(2) The Utraquist church was the largest of the churches in Bohemia after the Hussite wars.
The council at Constance burned Hus (as it condemned Wyclif), and that at Basel organized war against Hussites but also negotiated a compromise.
For the past two-and-a-half decades, Frantisek Smahel has been recognized as the preeminent scholar of the Hussites in fifteenth-century Bohemia.
In 1991, the category of "other evangelicals" consisted of such churches as the Evangelical Methodist Church 4,359; the Bortherly Union of Baptists (Baptist Church), 2,465; the Brethren Church (not Czech Brethren), 1,861; Adventists, 1,721; the Apostolic Church of Czech and Slovak Republic (Pentecostals), 1,116; the Czechoslovak Hussite Church, 625; and five other smaller evangelical churches numbering 1,146 altogether.
The first argues that he was not a significant presence (as inspiration or rallying point) of the later Hussite Crusade, and questions whether that might be in part because he was radically opposed to violence and killing.
Specific topics covered include oThe Social Outcome of the Hussite Revolution,o oNational and Linguistic Disputes in the Bohemian Vicariate of the Observant Franciscans,o and oThe Transformation of Bohemian Religious Brotherhoods in the Early Modern Period.o ([umlaut] Ringgold, Inc., Portland, OR)
He examines the impact of crusade politics and ideology on the political fabric of Denmark, papal and local taxation for the crusades, the Hussite crusades, the crusading activities of Christian I against the Turks, the preaching of the crusades in Denmark, and crusading activity after the Reformation.
Nikolai in Juterbog, made in Magdeburg after 1430 with archiepiscopal input in response to the Hussite heresy--the subject of the author's diploma thesis for the Humboldt University in Berlin (1991).
The Hussite movement he spawned, a forerunner of the Protestant Reformation, turned Prague and all of Bohemia into a center of anti-Catholic activity.
The Hussite movement split into rival movements but was so successful that by the sixteenth century the overwhelming majority of the Czech population became Protestant.
43] that Machaut may have acquired the Sanctus variant he used while traveling in Bohemia, since it appears in a late Hussite source there; but she is right to back away from this conclusion: another potentially relevant source I have consulted, Prague, Metropolitan Chapter 1363-74, Ph P9, does not contain the same music for this text.)