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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an ancient Japanese family constituting the highest stratum of the feudal aristocracy. The Fujiwara family was descended from the Nakatomi clan, which provided the hereditary priests of the Japanese Shinto religion.

The political rise of the Fujiwara was largely due to the Taika reforms of the seventh century (seeTAIKA). In the eighth century the custom was established of marrying emperors only to women of the Fujiwara family; the custom continued until the early 20th century. The Fujiwara emerged in control of the government in the ninth century; by the year 859, members of the family had taken the official titles of regent (sessho) and chancellor (kampa-ku). The power of the Fujiwara was partially due to the consolidation of the shoen system of private feudal estates, which were exempt from all taxation and received administrative and judicial immunity. A large number of these estates were owned by the Fujiwara.

The Fujiwara formally continued to rule until 1184. They had lost real power, however, by the mid-llth century owing to the decline of centralized authority in Japan caused by feudal fragmentation.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Considering the utility of the observing procedures for the study of stimulus control, some authors have suggested that observing responses (either ocular or manual) might be especially useful as a supplementary measure for equivalence class research by providing information about the patterns of stimulus control during the conditional discrimination-training and equivalence-test conditions (Dube et al, 2003, 2006; Hamasaki, 2009; Huziwara, De Souza, & Tomanari, 2016; Perez, Tomanari, & Vaidya, 2015; Steingrimsdottir & Arntzen, 2016).
These contextual cues are essentially both physical or spatial and temporal (Gallistel & Gibbon, 2000; Lukoyanov, Pereira, Mesquita, & Andrade, 2002; Ribeiro, Huziwara, Montagnoli, & de Souza, 2012).
Huziwara (UFMG), Ines Catao (Hospital da Crianca de Brasilia), Jean Von Hohendorff (iMED, Passo Fundo), Lisiane Bizarro (UFRGS), Livia Moretto (USP), Maria Cicilia de Carvalho Ribas (UFPE), Maria Luisa Mendes Teixeira (Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie), Maria Lyra (UFPE), Marilene Proenca (USP), Rafael Pecly Wolter (UERJ), Roberto Cruz (UFSC), Sonia Regina P.
Mean values were also calculated for TF% asymmetry index according to Huziwara (1956).
To avoid the establishment of inadvertent location control, basic research on stimulus equivalence has investigated alternative procedures to the MTS to generate emergent relations, such as simple discrimination procedures (e.g., Canovas, de Souza, & Barros, 2013; Canovas, Debert, & Pilgrim, 2015; Lionello-DeNolf, McIlvane, Canovas, de Souza, & Barros, 2008) and the go/ no-go procedure with compound stimuli (Boldrin, Gusmao, & Debert, 2016; Campos, Debert, Barros, & McIlvane, 2011; Debert, Matos, & McIlvane, 2007; Debert, Huziwara, Faggiani, de Mathis, & McIlvane, 2009; Grisante et al., 2013; Modenesi & Debert, 2015; Perez, Campos, & Debert, 2009; Silva & Debert, 2017; Vernucio & Debert, 2016).
Velasco, S.M., Huziwara, E.M., Machado, A., & Tomanari, G.Y.
The mean values were calculated for the total haploid chromosome length (THCL), the longest (L) and the shortest chromosome (S) length, the ratio of the longest to the shortest chromosomes (L/S), the difference between the longest and the shortest chromosomes (L-S), the average chromosome length in the metaphase ([chi]m), the average of centromeric indices and the karyotype asymmetry index TF% (HUZIWARA, 1956) for each Vitis species.
Na literatura, os estudos sobre os movimentos dos olhos tem auxiliado a investigacao de controle de estimulo (por exemplo, Dube et al., 1999; Dube et al., 2003; Endemann, 2008; Magnusson, 2002; Perez, 2008; Pessoa, Huziwara, Perez, Endemann, & Tomanari, 2009; Schroeder, 1969a, 1969b, 1970, 1997).
For example, (Huziwara, Silva, Perez, and Tomanari 2015) used eye-tracking measures to investigate the relationship between fixation time and successive and simultaneous discrimination training.
Pessoa CVBB, Huziwara E, Perez W, Endemann P, Tomanari GY.
Further, Pessoa, Huziwara, Perez, Endemann, and Tomanari (2009) found that the time spent on correct comparisons was higher and diminished less during training than the time spent on incorrect alternatives in a simple discrimination task.