Hybrid Junction

hybrid junction

[′hī·brəd ′jəŋk·shən]
(electronics)
A transformer, resistor, or waveguide circuit or device that has four pairs of terminals so arranged that a signal entering at one terminal pair divides and emerges from the two adjacent terminal pairs, but is unable to reach the opposite terminal pair. Also known as bridge hybrid.

Hybrid Junction

 

a four-arm radio wave guide system in which the power entering any one arm is equally divided between two others and does not enter the fourth arm; when coherent oscillations are fed to any two of the arms, their sum will be detected at a third arm and their difference at the fourth.

Hybrid junctions are used in superhigh-frequency technology: in dividers and power splitters to add and subtract oscillatory powers, in balanced mixers to suppress the noise of a receiver heterodyne, and in bridge circuit measuring devices to determine impedances and reflection coefficients. The great variety of hybrid junctions reduces to three simple forms: the hybrid ring type, the hybrid tee, and the directional coupler with a 3-decibel coupling. The ring hybrid junction, or hybrid ring, consists of a segment of a radio-frequency wave guide that is closed upon itself and has connecting arms. The circumference (along a mean radius) of the hybrid ring is made equal to a multiple of half the design wavelength of the electromagnetic oscillations within it, and the distance (along the same circumference) between the individual arms is a multiple of a quarter wavelength.

REFERENCES

Harvey, A. F. Tekhnika sverkhvysokikh chastot, vol. 1. Moscow, 1965. (Translated from English.)
Jones, C. W. “Concerning Hybrids.” Microwave Journal, 1961, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 98-104.

V. I. SUSHKEVICH

References in periodicals archive ?
For example, in the quadrature hybrid junction, port one is isolated from port number two, three from four.
The quadrature hybrid junction and the scattering matrix shown in Figure A1 reflect the comments made above.
For example, for a 64-beam system (8 X 8), 16 planar matrix feeds are required with 12 hybrid junctions and 16 fixed phasers for each matrix.
Figure A2 shows examples of X-band quadrature hybrid junctions.
Chang, "Ultra Broadband Doubly Balanced Star Mixers Using Planar Mouw's Hybrid Junction," IEEE Transactions on Microwave and Theory Techniques, Vol.
Mouw, "Broadband Hybrid Junction and Application to the Star Mixer," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol.
A top wall hybrid junction has the same function and application as a side wall, yet is slightly more compact and broader band.
A tuning screw of about 1/3 the junction width diameter, having a radial bottom and placed in the exact center of the side wall hybrid junction, is an efficient tool for fine balance and return loss adjustments.
An experimental adjustment of the hybrid junction is necessary to locate the cross-over points at the frequency edges of the specified band.
Riblet, "The Short-slot Hybrid Junction," Proceedings of the I.
A balanced mixer uses a hybrid junction (90[degrees] or 180[degrees]) along with two single-ended mixers to provide better return loss at all inputs as well as better RF/LO isolation.
The model PD09-73 plastic-packaged GaAs MMIC is the smallest in-phase hybrid junction available for the 800 to 1000 MHz frequency range.